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Determining the Effect of Material Properties on Operating Temperatures of Fiber Reinforced Internal Combustion Engine Poppet Valves

Colorado State University-D. Cate, D. W. Radford
Published 2008-12-02 by SAE International in United States
Internal combustion engine poppet valves operate in extreme conditions. These extreme conditions are a result of the high temperatures in the combustion chamber. Especially in Motorsport applications, the high temperatures have led to the development of exotic metallic alloys that can operate in this environment. One key problem in developing materials for poppet valves is that it is necessary to know the temperature at which they operate. This is increasingly important when developing valves from alternative materials such as fiber reinforced composites. Composite engine valves have the potential to produce substantial increases in engine performance, through substantial weight reductions, if they can be designed to withstand the environment. Research to-date has demonstrated the functionality of fiber reinforced composite intake valves that are significantly lighter than metallic valves; however, composite valve surface temperatures seem higher than expected. Using measurements of standard steel valve temperatures and engine heat transfer correlations, thermal simulations have been used to predict the operating temperatures of composite valves. These predictions have been made using measured thermal conductivities of the composite materials currently…
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Development of an Effective, Low-Cost Internet-Based Motorsport Driver Simulation

jRacing.com Motorsport Simulations-Dave Kaemmer, Ian Benwick, Steve Porter
Published 2008-12-02 by SAE International in United States
Because they require substantial technical and financial resources, the use of operator-in-the-loop interactive driver training, track familiarization and race rehearsal simulation has been the province of the top tier of Formula 1 teams. This paper describes the development of a motorsport simulation software package that combines graphics and audio technology developed in the gaming industry with innovative proprietary techniques in building models of vehicles and tracks. The result is a low-cost but effective internet-based, real-time, operator-in-the-loop driver training, track familiarization and race rehearsal tool with wide application in the sport, including stockcars, sportscars, karts, drag racers, even motorcycles.
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Changes to Fim-Motogp Rules to Reduce Costs and Make Racing More Directly Relevant to Road Motorcycle Development

University of Melbourne-Alberto A. Boretti, Harry C. Watson
Published 2008-12-02 by SAE International in United States
The specific power densities and therefore the level of sophistication and costs of FIM-MOTOGP engines 800 cm3 in capacity have reached levels similar to those of the traditionally much more expensive FIA-Formula One engines and some racing developments have no application at all in the development of production bikes. The aim of the paper is therefore to review FIM-MOTOGP engine rules and make recommendations that could reduce costs and make racing more directly relevant to the development of production bikes while enhancing the significant interest in technical innovation by the sports' fans.
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Jack Stands in North American Rally - A Design Proposal

University of Windsor-M. Johnston, K. Martin, J. Johrendt
Published 2008-12-02 by SAE International in United States
ABSTRACTRally cars are among the most technologically advanced and complex race cars, with intercooled forced induction, adaptive all wheel drive and high-feature engine management being standard features for open class racers in all major North American Rally series. This high level of technology and complexity places additional burden on the service crews and mechanics charged with the task of preparing and repairing the vehicles during the competition. As such, it is of great importance that the brief service stops (thirty minutes per FIA regulation 17.2.2 [2008]) be executed as efficiently as possible.In the pursuit of valuable seconds, rally mechanics have shown a great deal of ingenuity, creating tools and procedures which are unique to the sport. One such innovation is the peg-style jack stand. As with a typical jack stand, these devices are intended to hold the car suspended above the ground at a height allowing mobility of the mechanics under the vehicle to maneuver large components such as transmissions and differentials. It is popular practice for teams to fabricate customized jack stands, without following…
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Cost Effective Sustainable Fuels for Performance Vehicles

Motorsport New Zealand-Kevin Dwyer
Published 2008-12-02 by SAE International in United States
Ethanol, as a fuel, has many favourable attributes when considering it for use in general everyday motoring as well as high performance race applications. Its status as a sustainable fuel when sourced from waste or by-product biomass, combined with good combustion, thermal and anti-knock properties, along with a tendency to reduce overall CO2 emissions has prompted this investigation into the advantages of petrol-ethanol blends compared to conventional motorsport fuels for use in race vehicles.This investigation compares three petrol-ethanol blends with three other fuels common to motorsports. Back-to-back testing was carried out on a single engine sourced from the New Zealand V8s National Championship touring car series, fitted with both a carburettor and EFI fuelling systems. Fuel performance was evaluated on cost, consumption, performance, and emissions.
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3 Load Cell Tumble Meter Development

Chrysler LLC-Patrick H. Baer
Published 2008-12-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper will describe the development of the 3-load cell tumble meter. This is a new method for measuring the tumble component of in-cylinder mixture motion. In-cylinder mixture motion is an important parameter for understanding and improving combustion stability of piston engines.
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The Application of Energy-Based Fuel Formulae to Increase the Efficiency Relevance and Reduce the CO2 Emissions of Motor Sport

Lotus Engineering-J. W. G. Turner, R. J. Pearson
Published 2008-12-02 by SAE International in United States
Concerns over energy security and global warming are beginning to be a serious issue for society and are also starting to drive customer purchasing decisions across many areas. Against this background there is an increasing call for motor sport to improve its environmental image, despite the fact that the global energy consumption and CO2 emissions attributable to motor sport are a very low proportion of the total. The real issue for motor sport in the face of the wider societal concerns is that, if it is truly at the cutting edge of relevant automotive engineering, it should be configured and managed in such a way as to drive technology for the betterment of mankind. The status quo is, it is contended, increasingly seen to be blatantly energy-profligate in the eyes of many people and this issue must be resolved if motor sport is to demonstrate the wider benefits of the technology developed by the huge financial investments committed to competing at the highest level. The paper proposes the adoption of much broader rules based on…
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Occupant Compartment Updates for Side to Side Vibration in a Fuel Funny Car

ISP Seats-Kris VanGuilder
Safety Solutions, Inc.-Trevor Ashline
Published 2008-12-02 by SAE International in United States
Nitro Fuel Funny cars have 7-8,000 hp and travel 330 mph in a quarter mile. These cars experience extreme forces in normal operation. One phenomenon familiar to drag racers is tire shake. Mild cases can cause loss of traction and vision. Extreme cases can cause injury or death. In March of 2007, a study and subsequent revision of the passenger compartment in a Fuel Funny car was performed after a fatal accident due to extreme tire shake.Tire shake on a drag race car normally occurs when the force on the rear tire causes the tire to roll over itself causing a loss of traction and side-to-side vibration. In other cases, if the tire fails at high speed, the tire may partially separate, causing an extreme vibration in the cockpit of the car. The vibration may set up a harmonic in the chassis, which is transferred to the driver since the rear end is bolted directly to the chassis with no suspension to absorb the energy. The authors of this paper studied the effects of extreme…
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Experimental and CFD Comparative Case Studies of Aerodynamics of Race Car Wings, Underbodies with Wheels, and Motorcycle Flows

Cornell University-Sachin Desai, Emily Leylek, Chi-Man Betty Lo, Punith Doddegowda, Aleksandr Bychkovsky, Albert R. George
Published 2008-12-02 by SAE International in United States
The validity and usefulness of low-complexity “fast-turnaround CFD” for motorsports design is investigated using results from three different combined experimental and CFD analyses of racing or high-speed vehicles. Analyses using both wind tunnel experiments and CFD simulations (with commercial software and moderate computing resources) found good agreement in some aspects of interest over a variety of applied situations. Key results were the ability for relatively simple CFD models to consistently predict CL in complex flows within 15-25% of experimental findings, predict the effect of design changes on flow, and accurately show qualitative flow phenomenon. However, CD values were not accurately predicted with the low-complexity simulations. Simulations were run using the commercial Fluent© 6.3 application. Experimental results were performed in the Cornell University 4 by 4 foot wind-tunnel.The first investigation explored the development of front and rear wing packages for a formula-style race vehicle. After validation of Fluent© 6.3, basic 2D wing designs were optimized using CFD and tested in the wind-tunnel and on the track.The second investigation explored the aerodynamics of underbody-equipped bluff bodies in…
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Design of a Continuous Flow Water Channel for Fluid Dynamics Research

University of North Carolina at Charlotte-Samuel Hellman, Peter Tkacik
Published 2008-12-02 by SAE International in United States
Water tunnels are used for a variety of research purposes including hydrodynamic and aerodynamic studies. In order to meet the technical needs of the research topics, a water tunnel with a one square meter cross section has been designed to reach one meter per second flow rates in a continuous flow environment. The primary mode for achieving this Re = 106 system is an extremely high flow rate pump combined with an ultra high efficiency flow path. The tunnel will weigh over 24,000 kg and will have a test velocity of 1 m/s. The tunnel is under construction in the University of North Carolina at Charlotte Motorsports Research facility and the expectation is that it will be operational in January of 2009.
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