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Electromagnetic Water Pump Clutch: Working Principle, Design Strategies and Applications for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

Linnig Trucktec GmbH-Rainer Krafft, Andreas Wolf
SOLAR Turbines Incorporated-Wolfgang Faller
Published 2007-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Current development activities on modern heavy-duty diesel engines are aimed primarily on reducing emissions and improving fuel consumption. This paper describes how the water pump, traditionally driven from the crankshaft through a mechanical link, can be enhanced to satisfy increased demands for coolant flow for new engine strategies and also save power by eliminating unnecessary operation. An electromagnetic 2-speed clutch, incorporated into the overall envelope of the water pump allows the engine control system to select the best pump speed for any given operational condition. The presented underlying principles, technical solutions and prototype experiences demonstrate the utility of this new component.
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The Potential of Using Vegetable Oil Fuels and Ethanol as Fuels for Engine Operation at Heights Well Above Sea Level

Universidad Nacional de Colombia-Helmer R. Acevedo G., Juan M. Mantilla G., Carlos H. Galeano U., Carlos A. Duque D.
Published 2007-10-30 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this work was to study the use of blends with up to 10% of bio-fuels in Bogotá. Two and three component mixtures were used containing petroleum petrodiesel fuel plus crude and refined African palm oil, oleine and anhydrous ethanol. Tests were made on the exhaust gases for opacity and weight of the particulate matter retained by filtration on glass filters. Torque, power, rpm and temperature of the combustion gases were recorded. Tests were run for NOx, CO, and SOx. Three different diesel engines were used: a single cylinder Lister engine fitted for tests, a 6 cylinder Cummins engine and a 6 cylinder Caterpillar engine. The results show a positive potential of palm oil RBD, palm oil oleine and anhydrous ethanol for blends with commercial petroleum diesel fuel in the Andes mountains.
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Engineering the Ford H2 IC Engine Powered E-450 Shuttle Bus

Ford Motor Company-Ravi Gopalakrishnan, M.J. Throop, Alan Richardson, John Lapetz
Published 2007-10-29 by SAE International in United States
As a part of a continuous research and innovation effort, Ford Motor Company has been evaluating hydrogen since 1997 as an alternative fuel option for vehicles with internal combustion engines. Hydrogen fuel is attractive in that it is the cleanest fuel. Hydrogen, when used in an internal combustion engine, produces an exhaust emission consisting mainly of water vapor, with no carbon dioxide and trace amounts of other regulated pollutants. Hydrogen can be produced from renewable sources which will help reduce the dependence on foreign oil. The implementation of the hydrogen powered IC engine is seen as a strategy to help transition from a petroleum economy to a hydrogen economy and drive development of hydrogen storage, fueling infrastructure and other hydrogen related technologies. To help demonstrate a commercially viable hydrogen internal combustion engine (H2ICE) powered vehicle application, Ford has fully engineered a demonstration fleet of (30) E-450 shuttle buses with a 6.8L Triton engine that runs on hydrogen. These vehicles will be supplied to partners for a 2-3 year evaluation to help obtain real world usage…
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Investigation into Partially Premixed Combustion in a Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled Gasoline and Diesel with a Mixture of

University of Cambridge-Adam Weall, Nick Collings
Published 2007-10-29 by SAE International in United States
Partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) engines operating with a low temperature highly homogeneous charge have been demonstrated previously using conventional diesel fuel.The short ignition delay of conventional diesel fuel requires high fuel injection pressures to achieve adequate premixing along with high levels of EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) to achieve low NOx emissions. Low load operating regions are typified by substantial emissions of CO and HC and there exists an upper operating load limitation due to very high rates of in-cylinder gas pressure rise.In this study mixtures of gasoline and diesel fuel were investigated using a multi-cylinder light duty diesel engine. It was found that an increased proportion of gasoline fuel reduced smoke emissions at higher operating loads through an increase in charge premixing resulting from an increase in ignition delay and higher fuel volatility.The results of this investigation confirm that a combination of fuel properties, exhibiting higher volatility and increased ignition delay, would enable a widening of the low emission operating regime, but that consideration must be given to combustion stability at low operating loads.
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The Effect of Oil Drain Interval on Valvetrain Friction and Wear

ConocoPhillips Company-C. B. Phillips, H. Gao
Ford Motor Company-A. K. Gangopadhyay, R. O. Carter, D. Uy, S. J. Simko, M. Riley
Published 2007-10-29 by SAE International in United States
Engine oils are subjected to a series of industry standard engine dynamometer tests to measure their wear protection capability, sludge and varnish formation tendencies, and fuel efficiency among several other performance attributes before they are approved for use in customer engines. However, these performance attributes are measured at the end of tests and therefore, do not provide any information on how the properties have changed during the tests. In one of our previous studies it was observed that engine oil samples collected from fleet vehicles after 12,000 mile drain interval showed 10-15 % lower friction and more importantly, an order of magnitude lower wear rate than those of fresh oils. It was also observed that the composition of the tribochemical films formed was quite different on the surface tested with the drain oils from those formed with fresh oils. The objective of this investigation is to demonstrate how the friction and wear performance changed with oil drain intervals. A fleet of three vehicles was run in Las Vegas and oil samples were collected at various…
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Influence of Various Blends Cottonseed Methylester Biodiesel on Steady State Emissions Using an Old Technology Ford Escort on a Chassis Dynamometer

Imperial College London, UK-Spyridon Katopodis
KOSMOCAR S.A., General Importer of VW & AUDI in Greece-Georgios Gkatzianis
Published 2007-10-29 by SAE International in United States
In this study the influence of various blends biodiesel on steady state exhaust emissions was determined. A series tests were conducted over a period of six months, including the summer when the ambient temperature is quite high in Greece. An old technology Ford Escort 1.6L, 4 cylinders with indirect injection system was used on a chassis dynamometer. The test car was not equipped with an engine Electronic Control Unit (ECU) and run on the dynamometer with full load on three different gear settings (second gear, third gear and fourth gear). Seven fuels were used, a high sulfur diesel, and blends of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% by weight biodiesel in neat diesel (B10), (B20), (B30), (B40), (B50) and (B100) respectively. Fuel injection timings were held the same for the biodiesel blends and the baseline diesel fuel to eliminate the potential injection timing differences due to the different fuel heating values. Experimental model vehicle started all tests in May 2006 and completed tests for this study in October 2006. It has already been operated more…
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Cooled EGR for a Turbo SI Engine to Reduce Knocking and Fuel Consumption

Valeo Engine Cooling-Stephanie Moroz, Eva Tomas
Valeo Engine Management System-Sebastien Potteau, Philippe Lutz, Samuel Leroux
Published 2007-10-29 by SAE International in United States
Cooled exhaust gas recirculation is emerging as a promising technology to address the increasing demand for fuel economy without compromising performance in turbocharged spark injection engines. There are a number of different possible architectures, each with its specific characteristics. The objectives of this study are to quantify the increase in knock resistance and to decrease the enrichment at full load in order to target stoichiometric operation over the full operating range, and to define a vehicle compatible cooling system to meet the demanding heat rejection requirements.Based on our knowledge in EGR and air loops, the benefits and risks of various cooled EGR turbocharged systems were evaluated and compared in a preliminary phase. Two architectures, one with high pressure EGR and the other with low pressure EGR, were selected and tested on a 2L turbocharged gasoline engine on a stationary test bench and the performance was compared to the serial production engine. The EGR gas and the turbo compressed intake air were cooled by high efficiency compact water cooled heat exchangers, allowing an accurate control of…
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Effect of Fuel Properties on Spray Development from a Multi-Hole DISI Engine Injector

Shell Global Solutions (UK), Ltd.-R.F. Cracknell, H.L. Walmsley
University College London-Z. van Romunde, P.G. Aleiferis
Published 2007-10-29 by SAE International in United States
Extensive literature exists on spray development, mixing and combustion regarding engine modeling and diagnostics using single-component and model fuels. However, often the variation in data between different fuels, particularly relating to spray development and its effect on combustion, is neglected or overlooked. By injecting into a quiescent chamber, this work quantifies the differences in spray development from a multi-hole direct-injection spark-ignition engine injector for two single-component fuels (iso-octane and n-pentane), a non-fluorescing multi-component model fuel which may be used for in-cylinder Laser Induced Fluorescence experiments, and several grades of pump gasoline (with and without additives). High-speed recordings of the sprays were made for a range of fuel temperatures and gas pressures. It is shown that a fuel temperature above that of the lowest boiling point fraction of the tested fuel at the given gas pressure causes a convergence of the spray plumes. Increasing the fuel temperature increases this convergence, whilst an associated increased rate of evaporation tends to reduce the penetration of individual plumes. The convergence increases gradually with increasing fuel temperature until all plumes…
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Steady-State Local Heat Flux Measurements in a Straight Pipe Extension of an Exhaust Port of a Spark Ignition Engine

Oakland University-Noel Balzan, Brian P. Sangeorzan, Alex C. Alkidas
Published 2007-10-29 by SAE International in United States
Experiments were carried out on a straight pipe extension of an exhaust port of a multi-cylinder, spark-ignition engine to investigate the axial variation of the steady-state surface heat transfer. Local, steady-state, surface heat flux measurements were made at five different stations on the test section. Based on an optimization procedure developed in this study, the heat-flux measurements obtained for axial distances x / D > 2, were found to be correlated very well (R2 = 0.95) by an equation in the form of an entrance length correction, which is a function solely of x / D, multiplied by the Sieder-Tate convective heat transfer correlation; a correlation valid for fully-developed, steady-state, turbulent, pipe flows. Most importantly, this paper provides strong evidence that the observed heat transfer augmentation in the engine exhaust system is due solely to entrance effects and not due to flow fluctuations, which was the accepted cause.
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Improved Friction Modifiers to Aid in Future Fuel Economy Targets

The Lubrizol Corporation-Mike Sutton, Jody A. Kocsis, Isao Nakagawa
Published 2007-10-29 by SAE International in United States
Requirements to improve vehicle fuel economy continue to increase, spurred on by agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol. Lubricants can play a role in aiding fuel economy, as evidenced by the rise in the number of engine oil specifications that require fuel economy improvements. Part of this improvement is due to achieving suitable viscometric properties in the lubricant, but additional improvements can be made using friction modifier (FM) compounds. The use of FMs in lubricants is not new, with traditional approaches being oleochemical-based derivatives such as glycerol mono-oleate and molybdenum-based compounds. However, to achieve even greater improvements, new new friction modifying compounds are needed to help deliver the full potential required from next generation lubricants. This work looks at the potential improvements available from new FM technology over and above the traditional FM compounds. This is explored from bench screening tests through to standard industry engine tests and quantifies the potential benefit that these compounds may have on improving vehicle fuel economy.
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