Your Selections

Digital Human Modeling for Design and Engineering Symposium
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Events

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

A Method for Estimating Biomechanical Parameters of Upper and Lower Extremities

Hsinchu Hospital-Tze-Hong Wang
Hsuiping Institute of Technology, Taiwan-Hsin-Hung Tu
Published 2008-06-17 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this study is to estimate the biomechanical parameters (BPs) of the upper and lower extremities of human body. These parameters include mass, center of mass, density, moment of inertia and radius of gyration. The method is desired to acquire 3D mass profile of the extremity by mapping 3D tomographical data obtained from computerized tomography scan (CT) onto 3D scanned data.The surface data of the segment is dissected into several equally-spaced cross-sections along its longitudinal axis like those of the CT tomographical scan. For each pair of cross-sections, the profile of the tomographical data is superimposed on the surface data, registered and aligned. The bone is mapped first without any deformation. The skin of tomographical cross-section is deformed to the surface contour, as well as the boundary of muscle. Then the area of the deformed muscle is rescaled in order to pertain to the same size as that of the tomographical data. The area bound between the skin and the muscle is considered as fat. The profile of tissues of with 4 different…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

On the Determination of Joint Motion Coupling for the Human Shoulder Complex

The University of Iowa-Jingzhou Yang, Karim Abdel-Malek
Wuhan University of Technology, China-Xuemei Feng
Published 2008-06-17 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a novel approach to determining the joint motion coupling relationship for the human shoulder complex. The human shoulder complex is the most sophisticated part in terms of degrees of freedom and motion. In the literature, different human shoulder biomechanical models have been developed for various purposes. Also, researchers have realized that there are constant movement relationships among the shoulder bones: the clavicle, scapula, and humerus. This is due to muscles and tendons that are involved in skeletal motions. These relationships, which are also called shoulder rhythm, entail joint motion coupling and joint limit coupling. However, the scope of this work is to determine the joint motion coupling relationship. This relationship is available in the literature, but it is an Euler-angle-based relationship. In the virtual human modeling environment, we cannot directly use this Euler-angle-based relationship. A novel approach is proposed to transfer Euler-angle-based coupling equations into a relationship based on the Denavit-Hartenberg (DH) method. A realistic shoulder complex model is built within Virtools. Euler angles are obtained for static positions with intervals of…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Reconstructing and Evaluating a Workplace Fatality Using Human Motion Capture

Fay Engineering Corporation-Richard J. Fay, Patrick M. Fay
Published 2008-06-17 by SAE International in United States
This Case Study documents our company's efforts to demystify a baffling on-the-job fatality. A central part of the solution was Human Motion Capture. Our company was hired to find out what occurred when a railroad worker was fatally injured by a moving train while dismounting his own locomotive. Human Motion Capture was used in combination with aerial photography, nighttime videography, computer graphics, witness testimony and actual railroad equipment to produce a visualization video. The resulting visualization assisted all parties in understanding how this workplace fatality happened. This understanding led to an out-of-court settlement. Human Motion Capture enabled a scientifically accurate reenactment of the accident using actual equipment without producing a second fatality. This paper could aid anyone analyzing a serious workplace injury, either for reconstruction or worker safety training purposes.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Evaluation and Optimization of Driver Posture

Jiangsu University-Jianjun He, Changgao Xia, Song Chen, Gao cui
Published 2008-06-17 by SAE International in United States
A system of evaluation and optimization is developed intended for evaluating and optimizing manikin posture effectively. According to the principle of designing for comfortable drive attitude, we can do 3D human-machine designing combining quantitative analysis and parameter optimization. Once the driver attitude is confirmed by the system, then the whole designing results match comfort requirement. And the tested body model is benefit to reasonable designing of seat. Referring to system's body model angle, optimal design of adjusting device can also be accomplished. Importantly, this system is fit to various kinds of vehicle. An example offers at last.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Design Optimization of Airline Seats

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Aalborg University, Denmark-John Rasmussen, Mark de Zee
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-1863
Published 2008-06-17 by SAE International in United States
This paper investigates the opportunity to optimize the parameters of an airline seat for maximum comfort within the confined space available in coach class. A computational model is subjected to a systematic variation of its parameters leading to identification of optimal movement patterns between the seat pan and backrest in terms of discomfort from muscle fatigue and shear forces.The paper concludes that such patterns exist but other factors may have to be included before the results are brought to practical use in airline seat design.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Influence of Object Properties on Reaching and Grasping Tasks

University of Michigan-Sungchan Bae, Jaewon Choi, Thomas J. Armstrong
Published 2008-06-17 by SAE International in United States
This paper investigates how reaching and grasping are affected by various object properties and conditions. While previous studies have examined the effect of object attributes such as size, shape, and distance from the subject, there is a need for quantitative models of finger motions. To accomplish this, the experiment was performed with six subjects where the 3D-coordinates of the finger joints and the wrist of one hand were recorded during reaching and grasping tasks. Finger joint angles at final posture were found to depend on both object size and orientation while wrist postures were changed primarily depending on object orientation. Also, each object orientation caused alteration in relative object location with respect to the hand at final posture. In addition, analysis of temporal variables revealed that it took from 1.06 to 1.30 seconds depending on the object distance to start reaching and complete grasping of the object. People spent 44% of the total movement time on opening their fingers and 78% on reaching to the object.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Optimization-Based Grasp Posture Generation Method of Digital Hand for Virtual Ergonomics Assessment

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Hokkaido University, Japan-Yui Endo, Satoshi Kanai
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan-Natsuki Miyata, Makiko Kouchi, Masaaki Mochimaru
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-1902
Published 2008-06-17 by SAE International in United States
Automatically generating humanlike grasp postures of the digital hand is a key issue for the virtual ergonomic assessment of the industrial products. In this paper we propose a new optimization-based approach for generating the realistic grasp posture. As an objective function, we use the number of the contact points, the fit of the specific part of the hand surface for the feature edges of the product surface and the margin for the constraints on the joint angle limits of the figures. The experimental studies on the grasp posture generation for the digital camera indicate that more realistic grasp posture could be generated using the proposed optimization-based method than the one using our former method.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Joint Reaction Forces at the Hip Joint during Dynamic Manipulation of the Femur

Columbia University-Thomas R. Gardner, Katerina Fishman, Alaina Johns, Evan K. Johnson
Published 2008-06-17 by SAE International in United States
Objective: To determine if the Articulated Total Body (ATB) Model can realistically model the joint reaction forces generated at the hip joint during posteriorly-directed manipulations of the femur. Methods: A 50th percentile adult male positioned supine with the pelvis constrained, the leg in 0° and 20° of abduction was modeled. Dynamic manipulation forces with a constant period of 0.24 seconds and amplitudes of 250N, 500N, and 750N were applied 10 cm distal to the center of the right hip joint along the longitudinal axis of the right femur in the anterior to posterior direction. Results: The percentage of the applied force seen at the hip joint decreased with increasing load amplitude. Conclusion: This study represents a novel and successful application of the ATB Model to elucidate the time-dependent forces produced within the hip joint during dynamic joint manipulations commonly performed by healthcare practitioners.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

New Features for the Sight Analysis with RAMSIS

HUMAN SOLUTIONS GmbH-Hans-Joachim Wirsching
Technische Universität München, Germany-Wolfram Remlinger, Heiner Bubb
Published 2008-06-17 by SAE International in United States
Ergonomic product design can be divided into the parts of physical ergonomics (anthropometrics) and cognitive ergonomics. I regard to the visual cognition, the anthropometric and cognitive ergonomics are very closely connected. The visual cognition process is based on physical as well as psychological components. The information processing in the brain needs the visual perception with the eyes. This visual perception needs some optical attributes for good viewing conditions of the eye.The international widely-used 3D-Man-Model System RAMSIS receives some additional functionality for analysis and practical design of to simulate these viewing conditions in the car. These new RAMSIS functions include methods for the analysis of reflective glare, visual acuity, reading precision, visual fields, limited accomodation, glasses, progressive addition lenses and electronic displays. These capabilities will enable a RAMSIS user to allow for (degraded) visual performance when designing user interfaces displays in cars.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

A Multi-Variable Regression Model for Ergonomic Lifting Analysis with Digital Humans

Ford Motor Company-Jim Chiang
The University of Iowa-Anith Mathai, Jinzengh Li, Karim Abdel-Malek, Lindsey Knake, Julie Wisch
Published 2008-06-17 by SAE International in United States
The Snook tables (Liberty Mutual Tables) are a collection of data sets compiled from studies based on a psychophysical approach to material-handling tasks. These tables are used to determine safe loads for lifting, lowering, carrying pulling, and pushing. The tables take into account different population percentiles, gender, and frequency of activity. However, while using these tables to analyze a work place, Ergonomists often have to select from discrete data points closest to the actual work place parameters thereby reducing accuracy of results. To compound the problem further, multiple interrelated variables are involved, making it difficult to analyze parameters intuitively. For example, it can be difficult to answer questions such as, does reducing the lifting height lower the recommended lifting weight, if the lifting distance is increased? To resolve such issues, this paper presents a new methodology for implementing the Snook tables using multi variable regression.
Annotation ability available