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Development of a New DPNR Catalyst

Toyota Motor Corporation-Tatsuji Mizuno, Juji Suzuki
Published 2004-03-08 by SAE International in United States
We, at Toyota, have been working to develop a new DPNR (Diesel Particulate-NOx Reduction) system to decrease both PM and NOx emissions by combining the NOx storage-reduction catalyst for direct injection gasoline engines with the most advanced engine control technologies.The purpose of the DPNR catalyst is to decrease PM and NOx in order to purify automotive exhaust gas. To reduce PM emissions, the PM trapping rate and PM oxidizing performance must be improved. Since the deposition of PM increases the pressure drop across the catalytic converter, it should also be suppressed.To attain these objectives, we have developed a new DPNR catalyst by the adoption of a new porous substrate structure and the improvement of the catalyst coating technique. The new DPNR catalyst will be mounted on the Avensis for commercial use in the European market.
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Surface Radiated Noise of Exhaust Systems - Calculation and Optimization With CAE

Tenneco Automotive, Heinrich Gillet GmbH-Jan-Friedrich Brand, Patrick Garcia, Dirk Wiemeler
Published 2004-03-08 by SAE International in United States
The emitted noise of an exhaust system is divided into three different kinds of noise: Tailpipe noise, noise transmitted through the hanger into the cabin and surface radiated noise. This paper deals with the surface radiated noise which becomes more and more unmasked as the radiated sound power of other sources, e.g. of the tailpipe, decreases. Noise sources, the transfer path and the radiation of a structure are presented. A method for calculating and optimizing a structure with FEA (finite element analysis) is also part of this paper.An exhaust system is a complex dynamical system. Global eigenfrequencies of a whole exhaust system are below 200 Hz. A muffler moves then in rigid body motion and the radiated sound power is subjective not relevant. The main sound power is transferred through the hanger to the underbody. At higher frequencies the acoustical effects appear more local and are more effective in noise radiation. It is then possible to divide the exhaust system into small sub-systems and to calculate these separately from the surroundings. This means less computational…
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New Algorithm for Multiple Object Detection in FM-CW Radar

Visteon Japan, Ltd.-Shunji Miyahara
Published 2004-03-08 by SAE International in United States
A new practical algorithm is proposed for multiple object detection in automotive FM-CW radars. They are radars for ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control) radar, collision avoidance, pre-crash safety, side-object detection, etc. This algorithm can provide the distance and relative velocity of objects without the ambiguity of distance and relative velocity, an inherent problem of FM-CW. Since it is simple, straight-forward and fast, it is suitable for automotive application, in which the update time is less than 100 [msec]. This algorithm is based on two down chirp frequency sweeps with small slope-difference. Since the difference is small, the correct pairs of beat frequencies are obtained automatically. Because of the down chirps, the polarity of beat frequencies owing to the distance and the doppler becomes the same for an approaching object and then the distance and the velocity are uniquely determined. Namely the distance and velocity information for multiple objects can be calculated without the ambiguity in a simple manner.
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A Study of a Mechanical Continuous Variable Rocker Arm (VRA): PART II Double Intake Valve Control

School of Engineering, Bangkok University, THAILAND-Thitiphol Anontaphan
Published 2004-03-08 by SAE International in United States
In the previous study (SAE 2003-01-0022), I presented a mechanical continuous variable valve event & valve lift VRA which some versions can integrate the variable timing control. Besides the VRA, the system can be applied to various valve trains, such as DOHC, SOHC and Push rod.In this VRA part II, a few parts of VRA are developed. For example, positions of camshaft and control shaft, which are closely related, are developed to produce minimum or maximum valve event & valve lift at the least rotation of control shaft. The developments will allow the VRA to produce a faster response and require less operation.Second part of this study will present the application of the Double Intake Valve Control, which double VRA will control each intake valve separately, while only one intake camshaft is required. Furthermore, this system is expected to support various forms of the combustion, including the gasoline direct injection as well.The experiments for measuring the characteristics of some types of this VRA, such as torque and emission, will be implemented by using 4-stroke, single…
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Software Subsystem Behavioral Testing for Real-Time Embedded Controller Applications

General Motors Powertrain-Doug Constance, Alexander N. Makris, Michael B. Wisbiski, Michael A. Kropinski, Michael A. Turley, Trenton W. Haines, Daniel G. Bolstrum
Published 2004-03-08 by SAE International in United States
A software behavioral test determines whether software execution under given input conditions matches the requirements established for the software. A tool that can perform such tests on software subsystems has been developed. The tool evaluates real-time control software written for embedded controller applications and detects many software behavioral problems that previously were found only on the bench or in the prototype. The tool is PC/workstation-based, emulates operating system characteristics of typical embedded controllers, and employs a distributed architecture that supports global engineering.
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Glare from Headlamps Optimized for Pedestrian Detection

Guide Corporation-Lawrence M. Rice
Published 2004-03-08 by SAE International in United States
A lower beam light distribution which is optimized for pedestrian detection has been devised. This paper examines the effects of the change to opposing driver glare.
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End-of-life Vehicles Recovery and Recycling Polyurethane Seat Cushion Recycling Options Analysis

DOW Europe-Frank E. Mark
Recticel n.v.-Axel E. Kamprath
Published 2004-03-08 by SAE International in United States
Polyurethane is now one of the key materials in automotive production. It is used in a wide variety of applications in a car and end-of-life considerations should be addressed at the higher volume parts.The polyurethane raw material and converting industry through its industry associations ISOPA and Euro-Moulders respectively has evaluated best practices for recycling of seat cushions within the European End of Life Vehicle (ELV) Directive. The different aspects of ELV compliance, technical, investment, market, quality requirements of products and chain deficit were addressed and evaluated from a stake holder industry point of view.The reason for addressing mainly the recycling route is due to the stringent 85 % reuse and recycling quota for the End of life vehicle (ELV) to be met in 2015.
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Active Front Steering (Part 1): Mathematical Modeling and Parameter Estimation

ZF Lenksysteme GmbH, Schwäbisch Gmünd, Germany-Willy Klier, Wolfgang Reinelt
Published 2004-03-08 by SAE International in United States
Active Front Steering (AFS) provides an electronically controlled superposition of an active angle to the steering wheel angle. This steering system developed by ZF Lenksysteme and BMW AG enables driver dependent as well as automatic steering interventions. The permanent mechanical connection between steering wheel and road wheels remains. Since the AFS system was recently introduced together with the new BMW 5 series, the most of the investigations of steering systems do not include the dynamic behavior of such mechatronic actuators. On the other hand, these kind of models are required to design control algorithms and model based monitoring functions that provide the desired accuracy and real-time algorithms that run on a series electronical control unit. This paper summarizes a validated mathematical model of the AFS actuator including 8 rigid bodies, 46 constraint relations and a synchronus motor.
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Simulation and Testing of a Suite of Field Relevant Rollovers

Delphi Corporation-Minoo Shah
Delphi Corporation and General Motors Corporation-Madana Gopal, Ken Baron
Published 2004-03-08 by SAE International in United States
Automotive rollover is a complex mechanical phenomenon. In order to understand the mechanism of rollover and develop any potential countermeasures for occupant protection, efficient and repeatable laboratory tests are necessary. However, these tests are not well understood and are still an active area of research interest. It is not always easy or intuitive to estimate the necessary initial and boundary conditions for such tests to assure repeatability. This task can be even more challenging when rollover is a second or third event (e.g. frontal impact followed by a rollover). In addition, often vehicle and occupant kinematics need to be estimated a-priori, first for the safe operation of the crew and equipment safety, and second for capturing and recording the event. It is important to achieve the required vehicle kinematics in an efficient manner and thus reduce repetitive tests. Mathematical modeling of the phenomenon can greatly assist in understanding such kinematics.In this study, math tools were used in three phases. The first step was to provide initial guidance to the testing through simple rigid body models.…
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Analytical Predictions and Correlation With Physical Tests for Potential Buzz, Squeak, and Rattle Regions in a Cockpit Assembly

Delphi Corporation-Mohamed El-Essawi, John Z. Lin, Gary Sobek
Lohitsa Inc.-Basavapatna P. Naganarayana, S. Shankar
Published 2004-03-08 by SAE International in United States
The perceived interior noise has been one of the major driving factors in the design of automotive interior assemblies. Buzz, Squeak and Rattle (BSR) issues are one of the major contributors toward the perceived quality in a vehicle. Traditionally BSR issues have been identified and rectified through extensive hardware testing. In order to reduce the product development cycle and minimize the number of costly hardware builds, however, one must rely on engineering analysis and simulation upfront in the design cycle.In this paper, an analytical and experimental study to identify potential BSR locations in a cockpit assembly is presented. The analytical investigation utilizes a novel and practical methodology, implemented in the software tool Nhance.BSR, for identification and ranking of potential BSR issues. The emphasis here is to evaluate the software for the BSR predictions and the identification of modeling issues, rather than to evaluate the cockpit design itself for BSR issues.The methodology is based on modal and forced frequency response analysis utilizing the finite element model of the structural assembly. The analytical results are compared herein…
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