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Joint Mechanism and Prediction of Strength for a Radial Knurling Connection of Assembled Camshaft Using a Subsequent Modeling Approach

SAE International Journal of Engines

Jilin University-Shuqing Kou, Chao Li
Taiyuan University of Technology-Peng Zhang, Zimin Kou
  • Journal Article
  • 03-11-03-0020
Published 2018-06-25 by SAE International in United States
Knurling joint applied in assembled camshaft has developed rapidly in recent years, which have exhibited great advantages against conventional joint methods in the aspects of automation, joint precision, thermal damage, noise, and near net shape forming. Both quality of assembly process and joint strength are the key requirements for manufacturing a reliable assembled camshaft. In this article, a finite element predictive approach including three subsequent models (knurling, press-fit and torsion strength) has been established. Johnson-Cook material model has been used to simulate the severe plastic deformation of the material. The residual stress field calculated from the knurling process was transferred as initial condition to the press-fit model to predict the press-fit load. The predicted press-fit load, torque strength and displacement of cam profile before failure were calculated. The torque strength of the joint was twice higher than that of a typical passenger vehicle requirement. The torque strength was significantly positive correlated to the press-fit load. Taking the knurling tool dimensions and feed amount as variables, the relationships between them and press-fit as well as joint…
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A Study of Age-Related Thoracic Injury in Frontal Crashes using Analytic Morphomics

University of Michigan-Susumu Ejima, Sven Holcombe, Peng Zhang, Brian Derstine, Joel MacWilliams, Carla Kohoyda-Inglis, Stewart Wang
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this study was to use detailed medical information to evaluate thoracic injuries in elderly patients in real world frontal crashes. In this study, we used analytic morphomics to predict the effect of torso geometry on rib fracture, a major source of injury for the elderly. Analytic morphomics extracts body features from computed tomography (CT) scans of patients in a semi-automated fashion. Thoracic injuries were examined in front row occupants involved in frontal crashes from the International Center for Automotive Medicine (ICAM) database. Among these occupants, two age groups (age < 60 yr. [Nonelderly] and age ≥ 60 yr. [Elderly]) who suffered severe thoracic injury were analyzed. Regression analyses were conducted to investigate injury outcomes using variables for vehicle, demographics, and morphomics. Compared to the nonelderly group, the elderly group sustained more rib fractures. Logistic regression models were fitted with different configurations of variables predictive of the Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale of the thoracic region (MAISthx 3+). The performance of models was assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). AUC is a widely-used “rating” method to…
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Effect of Oil and Gasoline Properties on Pre-Ignition and Super-Knock in a Thermal Research Engine (TRE) and an Optical Rapid Compression Machine (RCM)

Afton Chemical Corp.-Ashutosh Gupta, Huifang Shao
Afton Chemical Trading Co., Ltd.-Yinhui Wang
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
High boost and direct injection are effective ways for energy saving in gasoline engines. However, the occurrence of super-knock at high load has become a main obstacle for further improving power density and fuel economy. It has been known that super-knock can be induced by pre-ignition, and oil droplet auto-ignition is found to be one of the possible mechanisms. In this study, experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder thermal research engine (TRE), in which different types of oil and surrogates were directly injected into the cylinder and then led to pre-ignition and super-knock. The effect of oil injection timing, oil injection quantity, different gasoline and different oil were tested. All the oil in this work could induce pre-ignition, even though their combustion phasing was much later than that in the case of n-hexadecane. Additionally, the effect of oil additives was investigated and the test results indicated that the addition of CaSulfonate and NaSulfonate tends to promote pre-ignition, while the addition of ZDDP and MoDTC tends to retard pre-ignition at certain conditions. Besides the tests in…
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The Effect of Age on Fat and Bone Properties along the Vertebral Spine

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

University of Michigan-Chantal Parenteau, Sven Holcombe, Peng Zhang, Carla Kohoyda-Inglis, Stewart Wang
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1244
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The human body changes as it becomes older. The automotive safety community has been interested in understanding the effect of aging on restraint performance. Recent research has been focused on assessing the structural and material changes associated with age. In this study, structural tissue distribution was determined using the computed tomography (CT) scan data of more than 19,000 patients, aged 16 and up. The data consisted of subcutaneous fat cross-sectional area, visceral fat cross-sectional area, and trabecular bone density taken at each vertebral level. The data was quantified as a function of five age groups with the youngest group defined as 16-29 years old and the oldest group as 75 and up. An additional analysis stratified on gender was carried out.Overall, visceral fat increased with age. Compared to the 16-29 group, the visceral fat measured at the L1 level was 1.97 in the 30-44 group, 2.55 in the 45-59 group, 3.33 in the 60-74 group and 3.21 times greater in the 75+ group. Subcutaneous fat also increased with age up to the 60-74-year-old group. The…
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An Investigation of Different Combustion Chamber Configuration, Intake Temperature, and Coolant Temperature in a HCCI Optical Engine

Tianjin Univ.-Haifeng Liu, Peng Zhang, Zheming Li, Zunqing Zheng, Mingfa Yao
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign-Xuan Feng
Published 2011-08-30 by SAE International in United States
The influence of different combustion chamber configuration, intake temperature, and coolant temperature on HCCI combustion processes were investigated in a single-cylinder optical engine. Two-dimensional images of the chemiluminescence were captured using an intensified CCD camera in order to understand the spatial distribution of the combustion. N-heptane was used as the test fuel. Three combustion chamber geometries with different squish lip, salient, orthogonal, reentrant shape, referred as V-type, H-type, and A-type respectively, were used in this study. Intake temperature was set to 65°C and 95°C, while coolant temperature was set to 85°C. The experimental data consisting of the in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate, chemiluminescence images all indicated that the different combustion chamber geometries result in different turbulence intensity in the combustion chamber, and thus affect the auto-ignition timing, chemiluminescence intensity, and combustion processes. For the A-type combustion chamber, the high temperature autoignition occurred in the center of chamber, while autoignition location for the V-type combustion chamber was more dispersive and was closer to the chamber wall. Heat release rate and pressure rise rate was the highest…
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Wear Protection of Al383/SiO2 Metal Matrix Composites by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) Process

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Univ. of Windsor-Peng Zhang, Xueyuan Nie, lihong han, Henry Hu
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-0024
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Al383/SiO₂ metal matrix composites (MMC) were designed to increase the wear properties of the Al alloy. However, the soft Al matrix was subject to large plastic deformation under high normal load during lubricated sliding wear tests, causing detachment of the reinforced particles. To further increase the wear resistance of the MMC, in this research, Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) process was used to form oxide coatings on the MMC. The hard and wear-resistant oxide coatings protected the metal matrix during the wear tests, reducing the wear rate of MMC. The effect of both oxide coating thickness and volume content of SiO₂ particles on the wear behavior of MMC was investigated. It was found that with a proper combination of the volume content of SiO₂ and coating thickness, the MMC exhibited high wear resistance and low friction coefficient.
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Diesel Engine Combustion Control: Medium or Heavy EGR?

Guangxi Yuchai Machinery Co., Ltd.-Jie Shen
Guangxi Yuichai Machinery Co. Ltd.-Zhiqiang Lin, Tiejian Lin
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is an important parameter for control of diesel engine combustion, especially to achieve ultra low NOx emissions. In this paper, the effects of EGR on engine emissions and engine efficiency have been investigated in a heavy-duty diesel engine while changing combustion control parameters, such as injection pressure, injection timing, boost, compression ratio, oxygenated fuel, etc. The engine was operated at 1400 rpm for a cycle fuel rate of 50mg. The results show that NOx emissions strongly depend on the EGR rate. The effects of conventional combustion parameters, such as injection pressure, injection timing, and boost, on NOx emissions become small as the EGR rate is increased. Soot emissions depend strongly on the ignition delay and EGR rate (oxygen concentration). Soot emissions can be reduced by decreasing the compression ratio, increasing the injection pressure, or burning oxygenated fuel. The effect of boost on soot emissions depends on the EGR rate. With increased boost, soot emissions decreased below the medium EGR rate, but the peak soot value increased. With heavy EGR, Low Temperature…
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