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Zemroch, Peter J.
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Impact of Biodiesel Blends on Fuel Consumption and Emissions in Euro 4 Compliant Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki-Zissis Samaras, Georgios Fontaras, Maria Kalogirou
BP Global Fuels Technology-Cassandra Higham
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-1484
Published 2010-05-05 by SAE International in United States
Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) products derived from vegetable oils and animal fats are now widely used in European diesel fuels and their use will increase in order to meet mandated targets for the use of renewable products in road fuels. As more FAME enters the diesel pool, understanding the impact of higher FAME levels on the performance and emissions of modern light-duty diesel vehicles is increasingly important. Of special significance to Well-to-Wheels (WTW) calculations is the potential impact that higher FAME levels may have on the vehicle's volumetric fuel consumption.The primary objective of this study was to generate statistically robust fuel consumption data on three light-duty diesel vehicles complying with Euro 4 emissions regulations. These vehicles were evaluated on a chassis dynamometer using four fuels: a hydrocarbon-only diesel fuel and three FAME/diesel fuel blends containing up to 50% v/v FAME. One FAME type, a Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME), was used throughout. One vehicle was equipped only with an oxidation catalyst while the other two were also equipped with two types of Diesel Particulate Filters…
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Effects of Gasoline Vapour Pressure and Ethanol Content on Evaporative Emissions from Modern European Cars

ACEA-Carlo Cucchi
CONCAWE-Steve McArragher, Neville Thompson, Jose Baro, Peter J. Zemroch
Published 2007-07-23 by SAE International in United States
A test programme designed to investigate the influence of gasoline vapour pressure and ethanol content on evaporative emissions from modern passenger cars was carried out by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission together with CONCAWE and EUCAR. Seven gasoline passenger cars representative of current EURO 3/4 emissions technology were tested for evaporative emissions with ten different test fuels. The test fuel matrix comprised 60 and 70 kPa hydrocarbon base fuels with 5 and 10% ethanol splash blends and 5 and 10% ethanol matched volatility blends. The test protocol was based on the European homologation test procedure. Although the test protocol turned out to have a significant influence on the results, the programme provided valuable information and it was possible to draw several clear conclusions.
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CONCAWE/GFC Study on Gasoline Volatility and Ethanol Effects on Hot and Cold Weather Driveability of Modern European Vehicles

CONCAWE-Neville Thompson, Roberto Bazzani, Theo Aarnink, Yeong Kwon, Pedro Miguel Martinez, Peter J. Zemroch
PSA Peugeot Citroen-Barry Cahill
Published 2004-06-08 by SAE International in United States
A joint test programme has been carried out by CONCAWE and GFC to evaluate the impact of gasoline volatility and ethanol on the driveability performance of modern European vehicles. Eight vehicles, three with DISI fuel systems and five with MPI, were tested for hot driveability performance. After screening tests, a subset of four vehicles was selected and tested for cold driveability. The latest test procedures developed by GFC were used for both hot (20, 30 and 40°C) and cold (+5 and -10°C: representative of moderate winter conditions) weather testing on climate controlled chassis dynamometers. A matrix of four hydrocarbon test fuels at two levels of DVPE and E70 was blended for the hot weather testing, and three fuels with varying E100 but essentially parallel distillation curves for the cold weather tests. For each hydrocarbon fuel, two other fuels containing 10% ethanol were made, one splash blend and one with matched volatility. Some tests were also carried out using 5% ethanol fuels made by blending hydrocarbon and 10% ethanol fuels. The paper describes the detailed results…
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Fuel Effects on Regulated Emissions From Advanced Diesel Engines and Vehicles

AVL List GmbH, Graz Austria-Theodor Sams, Alexandra Neunteufel
CONCAWE-Neville Thompson
Published 2004-06-08 by SAE International in United States
The introduction of sulphur-free fuels will enable advanced engine and exhaust after-treatment technologies to meet increasingly stringent exhaust emissions regulations. As these cleaner fuels and vehicles are introduced, the potential for further improvements in air quality through changes to fuel properties can be expected to diminish. Nevertheless, CONCAWE has continued to update knowledge by evaluating fuel effects on emissions from new engine/vehicle technologies as they approach the market.In this work, carried out as part of CONCAWE's contribution to the EU “PARTICULATES” consortium [1], two advanced light-duty diesel vehicles and three heavy-duty diesel engines covering Euro-3 to Euro-5 technologies, were tested. The fuels tested covered a range of sulphur content and compared conventional fuels with extreme fuel compositions such as Swedish Class 1 and Fischer Tropsch diesel fuels.The emissions benefits from the advanced engine/vehicle technologies operating on sulphur-free fuels are impressive and likely to bring substantial improvements in European air quality as the vehicle fleet is replaced. Particulate filters have the potential to reduce diesel particulate mass (PM) emissions by more than an order of magnitude.…
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Fuel Effects on Regulated Emissions from Modern Gasoline Vehicles

BP Global Fuels Technology-Roberto Bazzani
CONCAWE-Neville Thompson
Published 2004-06-08 by SAE International in United States
The influence of gasoline quality on exhaust emissions has been evaluated using four modern European gasoline cars with advanced features designed to improve fuel economy and CO2 emissions, including stoichiometric direct injection, lean direct injection and MPI with variable valve actuation.Fuel effects studied included sulphur content, evaluated over a range from 4 to 148 mg/kg, and other gasoline properties, including aromatics content, olefins content, volatility and final boiling point (FBP).All four cars achieved very low emissions levels, with some clear differences between the vehicle technologies. Even at these low emissions levels, all four cars showed very little short-term sensitivity to gasoline sulphur content. The measured effects of the other gasoline properties were small and often conflicting, with differing directional responses for different vehicles and emissions.
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Developing a Precision and Severity Monitoring System for CEC Performance Tests

Infineum UK Ltd-Christopher T. Gray
Shell Global Solutions (UK)-Peter J. Zemroch
Published 2004-06-08 by SAE International in United States
The Coordinating European Council, CEC, develops performance tests for the motor, oil, petroleum, additive and allied industries. In recent years, CEC has moved away from using round robin programmes (RRP's) for monitoring the precision and severity of test methods in favour of regular referencing within a test monitoring system (TMS). In a TMS, a reference sample of known performance, determined by cross-laboratory testing, is tested at regular intervals at each laboratory. The results are plotted on control charts and determine whether the installation is and continues to be fit to evaluate products. Results from all laboratories are collated and combined to monitor the general health of the test.The TMS approach offers considerable benefits in terms of detecting test problems and improving test quality. However, the effort required in collating data for statistical analysis is much greater, and there are technical difficulties in determining precision from TMS data.This paper describes the test monitoring framework that has been developed and how it fits into the CEC test development process. Its statistical properties are evaluated and recommendations for…
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Measurement of the Number and Size Distribution of Particle Emissions from Heavy Duty Engines

BP Amoco-Diane E. Hall
CONCAWE-Peter Heinze
Published 2000-06-19 by SAE International in United States
Air quality monitoring of PM10 and associated health studies have focused interest on the size and the number of particles emitted to, and found in, the atmosphere. Automotive sources are one of the important elements in this, and CONCAWE have completed a study of heavy duty diesel particle emissions, complementing their previously reported light duty work. This heavy duty programme, presented here, investigated the nature of particulate emissions from two heavy duty engines (representative of different emissions levels), operating on three marketed fuels, over their respective European legislative heavy duty test cycles.The programme has investigated some of the complexities associated with obtaining credible data (e.g. dilution ratios, system stabilisation time etc.). The number distributions, which were measured over a wide size range (3 to 1000 nm), have been split into two size ranges, representative of nucleation mode and accumulation mode particles. These two ranges have been analysed in terms of the effects of engine technology, fuels and test conditions.Accumulation mode particles were found to be measurable to a satisfactory level of repeatability, and were relatively…
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European Programme on Emissions, Fuels and Engine Technologies (EPEFE) - Statistical Design and Analysis Techniques

Adam Opel AG-Hans-Martin Burghardt
Exxon Chemical Ltd.-Christopher T. Gray
Published 1996-05-01 by SAE International in United States
Careful experimental design ensured that the EPEFE programme would deliver accurate, unambiguous conclusions despite the many pervading constraints on test fuels and test order. Fine-tuned statistical and graphical procedures were used methodically to identify possible outliers in the emissions data collected and to correct for underlying systematic trends. Summarising and interpreting the validated data required the rigorous use of advanced statistical modelling techniques which accounted correctly for both short- and long-term variability in emissions, and any unavoidable non-orthogonality or imbalance in the design. Multivariate methods were used for further data exploration.
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