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Yamada, T.
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Diesel Particulate Filters Made of Newly Developed SiC

NGK Insulators, Ltd.-S. Miwa, F. Abe, T. Hamanaka, T. Yamada, Y. Miyairi
Published 2001-03-05 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the performance and durability test results of a newly developed diesel particulate filter (DPF) made of silicon carbide (SiC). While SiC offers thermal resistance that is superior to cordierite, it requires a complex, multi-segment bonded design structure due to the thermal expansion coefficient that is higher than cordierite, which leads to a higher thermal stress during regeneration. This company has developed a honeycomb slit-type DPF made from a newly developed SiC through the application of its own honeycomb forming technology and material technology, and has also succeeded in controlling the cost of the product through a simplified design.
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A database for highway air quality modeling

Highway Environmental Research Institute-T. Itohiya
Public Works Research Institute-H. Ohnishi, T. Yamada
  • Technical Paper
  • 1999-23-0050
Published 1999-05-31 by Technical University of Graz in Austria
As part of a study on the development of a comprehensive air quality simulation model for highways, atmospheric dispersion experiments were carried out for a number of road structures. Data were compiled into a database for model development and validation.Most vertical concentration distributions obtained at roadside can be approximated to be Gaussian. It was found that the initial dispersion σ ZO for the highway with a noise barrier was larger than that for others, and less dependence as the atmospheric stability. The effect of the traffic condition has not so much importance for the plume dispersion in the vicinity of the road.
 

Effective Catalyst layout for ultra thin-wall and high cell-density ceramic substrate

NGK Insulators-Kazuhiko Umehara, T. Yamada, T. Hijikata, Y. Ichikawa, F. Katsube
Published 1997-12-31 by SAE International in United States
Catalytic performance can be improved by reducing bulk density (BD) and increasing geometric surface area (GSA) of ceramic substrate. Ultra thin-wall / high cell-density ceramic substrates, such as 3 mil/ 600 cpsi and 2 mil/ 900 cpsi have improved the catalytic performance over the conventional 6 mil/ 400 cpsi substrates. and are expected to help in complying with future emission regulations, as well as catalyst down-sizing. This paper describes the effects of BD and GSA using Pd-based catalysts. The significant reduction of hydrocarbons emissions was demonstrated at close-coupled location, and dual bed design was proven effective. The effectiveness at under-floor location was not as significant as the close-coupled location. This paper proposes the converter layout of dual bed close-coupled converter consisting of small volume 2 mill 900 cpsi front catalyst and large volume 3 mil/ 600 cpsi rear catalyst. The underfloor converter may be eliminated, if sufficient catalyst volume can be taken for the close-coupled converter.
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Technologies for Reducing Cold-Start Emissions of V6 Engine

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-T. Yamada, K. Nishizawa, Y. Ishizuka, N. Seki
  • Technical Paper
  • 978078
Published 1997-05-21 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
As a way of reducing cold-start HC emissions, we have investigated a system that uses an electrically heated catalyst (EHC) and secondary air injection into the exhaust. An important factor in reducing HC emissions is the extent to which unburned gas components can be oxidized exothermally in the exhaust manifold. Our results indicate that HC emissions can be reduced substantially by optimizing the quantity and location of secondary air injection, the air-fuel ratio and the power supply system for heating the catalyst.
 

Advanced Ceramic Substrate: Catalytic Performance Improvement by High Geometric Surface Area and Low Heat Capacity

K. Umehara, T. Yamada, T. Hijikata, Y. Ichikawa
NGK Insulators, Ltd.-F. Katsube
Published 1997-02-24 by SAE International in United States
Catalytic performance can be improved by increasing geometric surface area (GSA) and reducing bulk density (BD), namely heat capacity, using high cell-density / thinwall advanced ceramic substrates. The advanced substrates, such as 3 mil/600 cpsi and 2 mil/900 cpsi have improved the catalytic performance over the conventional substrates, and are expected to help in complying with future emission regulations, as well as catalyst downsizing. This paper describes the effects of GSA and BD using Pd-based catalysts. The reduction of hydrocarbons emissions was demonstrated significantly at close-coupled location, and dual bed design was proven effective. The effectiveness at under-floor location was not as significant as the close-coupled location.
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Design Development of High Temperature Manifold Converter Using Thin Wall Ceramic Substrate

NGK Insulators, Ltd.-K. Umehara, T. Yamada, T. Hijikata, M. Makino, F. Katsube
Published 1997-02-24 by SAE International in United States
This paper proposes a high temperature manifold converter with a thin wall ceramic substrate, such as; 4mil/400cpsi and 4mil/600cpsi. Double-wall cone insulation design was proposed for close-coupled converters to protect the conventional intumescent mat from high temperature. However, the double wall cone insulation is not applicable when the converter is directly mounted to the exhaust manifold without an inlet cone. The prototype manifold converter was tested under hot vibration test with a non-intumescent ceramic fiber mat and retainer rings as a supplemental support. The converter demonstrated durability for 10 hours under 80G acceleration and 100 hours under 60G acceleration with 1,050 °C catalyst bed temperature. The skin temperature of the heat shield was kept below 400 °C.
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Reliability Improvement of Automotive Components By Surface Modification

Mecahnical Engineering Research Laboratory Hitachi Ltd.-T. Yamada
Mechanical Engineering Research Laboratory Hitachi Ltd.-Y. Endoh, R. Okada
  • Technical Paper
  • 91A104
Published 1996-04-01 by Associazione Tecnica Dell'Automobile in Italy
In this paper, several detailed studies on the surface properties of coatings are explained in order to make function of surface modification become more effective. As surface coatings, eletroless nickel plating, organic thin film, nitriding and antireflection coating by ultra fine particles are examined. Discussion of optimum production conditions and surface conditions for each coating is introduced.
 

Trimetallic Three-Way Catalysts

Engelhard Corp.-S.J. Tauster, H.N. Rabinowitz
Engelhard Technologies-A. Punke, U. Dahle
Published 1995-02-01 by SAE International in United States
European car manufacturers have traditionally used Pt/Rh or Pd/Rh TWCs with PM loadings of 40-60 g/ft3. New regulations, however have stimulated interest in high Pd loadings (100 g/ft3 or more) in order to drastically reduce HC emissions. Pd is known to have good HC oxidation activity, high thermal stability and is relatively inexpensive. However, it suffers from excessive sensitivity to poisons and is usually associated with poor NOx conversion.A research program was initiated with the goal of capturing the benefits of high Pd concentrations while minimizing its disadvantages. It was found that trimetal formulations (Pt/Pd/Rh) could achieve high NOx conversions provided the loadings of the PMs were optimized based on a Box-Behnken design.Data showing the high thermal stability and low H2S emissions of these new “TriMax” catalysts will be presented. Their high performance has led to commercial acceptance by several European car manufacturers.
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Development of a New Limited Slip Differential

Fuji Univance Corp.-H. Ina, H. Izumi, T. Ito, T. Yamada, F. Matsuura
  • Technical Paper
  • 938245
Published 1993-10-19 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
A new limited slip differential has been developed by Fuji Univance Corp. in co-operation with Automotive Products plc, which has simple structure applied special cams.The limited slip differential has a constant torque bias ratio regardless of input torque. This paper presents its structure, principle of operation, analysis results of design parameters affected on torque bias ratio characteristic and experimental results.
 

Evaluation of New Three-Dimensional Codes for Flow in An Induction System

Kyoto Institute of Technology-N. Satofuka
Toyota Motor Corp.-S. Sugiura, Y. Saito, T. Yamada
  • Technical Paper
  • 914122
Published 1991-09-10 by Institution of Mechanical Engineers in United Kingdom
Two new three-dimensional codes specifically developed for the simulation of flow in the induction system of automobile engines are described and evaluated against experimental results. The first is a steady flow code that enables mass flow rate to be quickly and accurately assessed and flow patterns to be analyzed. The second is an unsteady flow code for the prediction of pressure waves generated by piston motion. The steady flow code is demonstrated to be a very practical design tool, while the unsteady flow code shows considerable potential as a means of determining effect of geometric changes on pressure wave propagation.