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Assessment of a Three-Semester Mechanical Engineering Capstone Design Sequence Based on the SAE Collegiate Design Series

Lawrence Technological University-James A. Mynderse, Liping Liu, Andrew Gerhart, Xin Xie, Wuming Jing, Kingman Yee
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Mechanical engineering students at Lawrence Technological University complete a five-credit hour capstone project: either an SAE collegiate design series (CDS) vehicle or an industry-sponsored project (ISP). Students who select the SAE CDS option enroll in a three-semester, three-course sequence. Each team of seniors designs, builds, and competes with their vehicle at one of the SAE CDS events. Three years after implementing major changes to the course structure and content, the three-semester capstone design sequence is revisited. Finalized learning objectives are presented and the sequence is assessed with a mix of direct, indirect, and anecdotal assessment. Student performance, as measured directly with design reports, milestones, and project completion, is good. Of the five Lawrence Tech CDS teams, only one has failed to be ready for competition since the changes were implemented. Student surveys show student satisfaction with the project and perceived improvement in design, analysis, and fabrication skills.
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Non-Destructive Evaluation for High-Pressure Composite Tubes using a Hybrid Approach

Eaton-Zhou Zhou
Lawrence Technological University-Xin Xie, Himanshu Kolambe, Abhijit Bothe
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Recently, composite materials/structures are getting increasingly used in the automotive and aerospace industry. Defects issue is commonly associated with the use of composite materials/structures. Reliable Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of composite structures is still challenging due to the existence of small size defects. In this research, a hybrid approach is used to accurately determine small size internal defects. In this hybrid approach, X-Ray Computed Tomography is used as a reference to accurately determine all defect locations, then a digital shearography method is used to conduct fast NDE for in-line testing. The critical shearographic NDE parameters such as shearing angle, shearing distance and loading amount are determined and optimized based on the X-ray CT scan result. From the comparison of X-ray CT scan results and digital shearography NDE results, the detection rate of digital shearography for defects with a size of larger than 1mm is from 91.91% to 97.30%. The detection rate of digital shearography For defects with a size of 0.4mm - 1mm is from 54.17% to 84.48%. The Shearographic NDE fundamentals, experimental setup, and testing…
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Shearographic Nondestructive Testing for High-Pressure Composite Tubes

Eaton Corp.-Zhou Zhou
Lawrence Technological University-Xin Xie
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
In response to the need for lightweight design in industries, composite materials are increasingly used to replace traditional metal tubes. However, subsurface defects such as voids, delaminations, and microcracks are still remaining common issues in composite pressure tubes. This paper introduces an application of Digital Shearography method in the Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) of high-pressure composite tubes. A new prototype high-pressure composite tube with a working pressure of 1000 psi range is tested using the digital Shearography method. To detect the sub-surface defects, a reference Shearographic phase map is created at 0 psi state, after that the composite tube is pressured using an oil pump, then the second Shearographic phase map is created at the pressured state. By subtracting the two shearographic phase maps created in different pressure state, the sub-surface defects can be identified clearly. The Shearographic NDT result is then compared with CT scan result. The Shearographic NDT fundamentals, optimization of Shearographic NDT setup for high rigidity objects, experiment setup, and testing results are shown in detail in this paper.
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An Application of Digital Image Correlation (DIC) Method in Large-Scale I-Beams Bending Test

Lawrence Technological University-Xin Xie, Nabil Grace, Marc Kasabasic, Kirtan Patel, Chukiang Fong-Ramirez, Ezekiel Ababio
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
AASHTO I-Beam is a standard structural concrete part for bridge sections. The flexural performance of an AASHTO I-Beam is critical for bridge design. This paper presents an application of Digital Image Correlation (DIC) Method in full-scale AASHTO I-Beam flexural performance study. A full-scale AASHTO I-Beam pre-stressed with steel strands is tested by three-point bending method. The full-scale AASHTO I-Beam is first loaded from 0 kips to 100 kips and is then released from 100 kips to 0 kips. A dual-camera 3D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is used to measure the deflection and strain distribution during the testing. From the DIC results, the micro-crack generation progress during the loading progress can be observed clearly from the measured DIC strain map. To enable such a large-scale DIC measurement, the used DIC setup is optimized in terms of the optical imaging system and speckle pattern size. The DIC fundamentals, optimization of DIC setup for large-scale measurement, experiment setup and testing results are shown in detail in this paper.
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Surface Quality Inspection for Vehicle Front Panel Using Polarized Laser Inspection Method

Ford Motor Company-Danielle Zeng
Lawrence Technological University-Xin Xie
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle front panel is an interior part which has a major impact on the consumers’ experience of the vehicles. To keep a good appearance during long time aging period, most of the front panel is designed as a rough surface. Some types of surface defects on the rough surface can only be observed under the exposure of certain angled sun light. This brings great difficulties in finding surface defects on the production line. This paper introduces a novel polarized laser light based surface quality inspection method for the rough surfaces on the vehicle front panel. By using the novel surface quality inspection system, the surface defects can be detected real-timely even without the exposure under certain angled sun light. The optical fundamentals, theory derivation, experiment setup and testing result are shown in detail in this paper.
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The Influence of Edge Quality on Edge Stretching Limit for Aluminum Alloy

Oakland University-Haley Linkous, Xin Xie, Laila Guessous, Lianxiang Yang
Youngstown State University-Eduardo Bustillos
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the measurement and analysis of the edge stretching limit of aluminum alloy using digital image correlation. The edge stretching limit, also known as the “edge thinning limit,” is the maximum thinning strain at a point of edge failure resulting from tension; which may be predisposed by edge quality. Edge fracture is a vital failure mode in sheet metal forming, however it is very difficult to measure. A previous study enabled the measurement of edge thinning strain by using advanced digital image correlation but it did not consider how the edge quality could affect the edge stretching limit of aluminum alloy. This paper continues to measure edge thinning strain by comparing polished to unpolished AA5754, thus determining the effect edge quality has on the edge stretching limit. To enable the measurement by optical method for a very long and thin sample, a notch is used to localize where edge failure occurs. The notched edges of the various prestrained aluminum alloy samples are polished to eliminate surface micro cracks from punch machining. A dual…
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Tensile Test for Polymer Plastics with Extreme Large Elongation Using Quad-Camera Digital Image Correlation

Ford Research and Innovation Center-Danielle Zeng, Jeffrey Dahl
Hunan University of Science and Technology-Qiancheng Zhao
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Polymer plastics are widely used in automotive light weight design. Tensile tests are generally used to obtain material stress-strain curves. Due to the natural of the plastic materials, it could be elongated more than several hundred percent of its original length before breaking. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) Analysis is a precise, full field, optical measurement method. It has been accepted as a practical in-field testing method by the industry. However, with the traditional single-camera or dual-camera DIC system, it is nearly impossible to measure the extreme large strain.This paper introduces a unique experimental procedure for large elongation measurement. By utilization of quad-camera DIC system and data stitch technique, the strain history for plastic material under hundreds percent of elongation can be measured. With a quad-camera DIC system, the correlation was conducted between two adjacent cameras. These four camera DIC system could obtain much wider test range without loss of measurement resolution. Moreover, a multiloading stage measurement procedure is developed to solve the painting peeling off problem due to the material large elongation. Between each loading…
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Measurement of Aluminum Edge Stretching Limit Using 3D Digital Image Correlation

FCA US LLC-Changqing Du, Yongjun Zhou, Dajun Zhou
Oakland University-Xin Xie, Xiaona Li, Yi-Hsin Chen, Guobiao Yang, Yaqian Zheng, Bernard Sia, Christina Phillips, Lianxiang Yang
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper introduces an industrial application of digital image correlation technique on the measurement of aluminum edge stretching limit. In this study, notch-shape aluminum coupons with three different pre-strain conditions are tested. The edge stretching is proceeded by standard MTS machine. A dual-camera 3D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is used for the full field measurement of strain distribution in the thickness direction. Selected air brush is utilized to form a random distributed speckle pattern on the edge of sheet metal. A pair of special optical lens systems are used to observe the small measurement edge area. From the test results, it demonstrate that refer to the notched coupon thickness, pre-tension does not affect the fracture limit; refer to the virgin sheet thickness, the average edge stretch thinning limits show a consistent increasing trend as the pre-stretch strain increased. Test plan, experimental setup, and experimental results are shown in detail in this article.
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Measure of Forming Limit Strain on the Aluminum Sheets Passed Through Draw-Bead by Digital Image Correlation

FCA US LLC-Changqing Du, Yongjun Zhou
Ford Motor Co-Cedric Xia
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Accurate determination of the forming limit strain of aluminum sheet metal is an important topic which has not been fully solved by industry. Also, the effects of draw beads (enhanced forming limit behaviors), normally reported on steel sheet metals, on aluminum sheet metal is not fully understood. This paper introduces an experimental study on draw bead effects on aluminum sheet metals by measuring the forming limit strain zero (FLD0) of the sheet metal. Two kinds of aluminum, AL 6016-T4 and AL 5754-0, are used. Virgin material, 40% draw bead material and 60% draw bead material conditions are tested for each kind of aluminum. Marciniak punch tests were performed to create a plane strain condition. A dual camera Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system was used to record and measure the deformation distribution history during the punch test. The on-set necking timing is determined directly from surface shape change. The FLD0 of each test situation is reported in this article. From the results of this study, the draw bead effects (enhanced forming limit behaviors) are found in…
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Spatial Phase-Shift Digital Shearography for Out-of-Plane Deformation Measurement

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Donghua University; Oakland University-Ping Zhong
Oakland University-Xin Xie, Yaqian Zheng, Xiaona Li, Bernard Sia, Lianxiang Yang
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0824
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Measuring deformation under dynamic loading is still a key problem in the automobile industry. The first spatial phase-shift shearography system for relative deformation measurement is reported. Traditional temporal phase-shift technique-based shearography systems are capable of measuring relative deformation by using a reference object. However, due to its low acquisition rate, the existing temporal phase-shift shearography system can be only used under static loading situations. This paper introduces a digital shearography system which utilizes the spatial phase-shift technique to obtain an extremely high acquisition rate. The newly developed spatial phase-shift shearography system uses a Michelson-Interferometer as the shearing device. A high power laser at 532nm wavelength is used as the light source. A one mega pixels high speed CCD camera is used to record the speckle pattern interference. The spatial frequency carrier is introduced by tilting one of the mirrors in the Michelson-Interferometer. The Fourier Transform method (FT) is used to separate the spectra on spatial frequency domain. The Windowed Inverse Fourier Transform (WIFT) method is then used to evaluate the phase information of the recorded…
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