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Enhancement of Thermal Fatigue Strength by the Addition of Calcium to Hypoeutectic Aluminum-Silicon Alloys

Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd.-Kentaro Watanabe, Kojiro Motoyama, Tomokazu Watanabe, Kazuhiro Ishihara, Fujio Maeda
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Several elements affect the structure of eutectic silicon in hypoeutectic aluminum alloys [1, 2, 3, 4]. Among them, calcium has been investigated to a lesser extent compared to the typically used sodium and strontium. In order to enhance the thermal fatigue strength of a small engine, the morphology of eutectic silicon in hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon alloys is controlled by the addition of calcium. In addition, the castability and mechanical properties are investigated. Hence, samples containing different amounts of calcium are prepared at different cooling rates during solidification. The results revealed that, with the increase in the calcium amount and the cooling rate, eutectic silicon exhibits a fine morphology in cross-sectional images. Particularly, with the addition of at least 62 mass ppm of calcium in a specific range of cooling rates, refined eutectic silicon is obtained. In order to clarify additional effects of the added calcium, the amount of dissolved gas, fluidity, and porosity defects are evaluated. The amount of dissolved gas and the fluidity do not change in the range of the investigated calcium amounts. However,…
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Modeling and Optimization of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fuel Economy

CD-adapco Japan Co., Ltd-Tomohisa Kumagai
Gamma Technologies, Inc-Jonathan Zeman, Iakovos Papadimitriou
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
One promising solution for increasing vehicle fuel economy, while still maintaining long-range driving capability, is the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). A PHEV is a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) whose rechargeable energy source can be recharged from an external power source, making it a combination of an electric vehicle and a traditional hybrid vehicle. A PHEV is capable of operating as an electric vehicle until the battery is almost depleted, at which point the on-board internal combustion engine turns on, and generates power to meet the vehicle demands. When the vehicle is not in use, the battery can be recharged from an external energy source, once again allowing electric driving.A series of models is presented which simulate various powertrain architectures of PHEVs. To objectively evaluate the effect of powertrain architecture on fuel economy, the models were run according to the latest test procedures and all fuel economy values were utility factor weighted. Additionally, a design of experiments was performed for the parametric study of the system and for the optimization of the control strategy for…
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Development of Integrated Powertrain Simulation for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Considering Total Energy Management

Nissan Motor Company Ltd.-Kentaro Watanabe, Masayuki Tani, Tsuyoshi Yamamuro, Masaaki Kubo
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Hybrid powertrain technology, which combines an internal combustion engine and an electric motor as power sources, is penetrating auto markets as a practical approach for reducing vehicle fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. This paper describes the development of an integrated powertrain simulation technology for predicting the fuel economy and exhaust emissions of hybrid electric vehicles with high accuracy and computation speed. Primary paths of kinetic, electric, chemical and thermal energies and their management were modeled. The predicted exhaust emissions and temperatures of the coolant and lubrication oil agreed well with experimental data in various vehicle driving conditions. This simulation was used to study an air-fuel ratio control strategy for reducing NOx at engine restart and to examine an exhaust heat recovery method for reducing fuel consumption and exhaust emissions under cold start conditions. The results showed that this simulation technology is an effective tool for studying total energy management in hybrid electric vehicles.
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A New Quasi-Dimensional Combustion Model Applicable to Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Kentaro Watanabe, Shingo Ito, Tadashi Tsurushima
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline engines employ various mechanisms for improvement of fuel consumption and reduction of exhaust emissions to deal with environmental problems. Direct fuel injection is one such technology. This paper presents a new quasi-dimensional combustion model applicable to direct injection gasoline engine. The Model consists of author's original in-cylinder turbulence and mixture homogeneity sub model suitable for direct fuel injection conditions. Model validation results exhibit good agreement with experimental and 3D CFD data at steady state and transient operating conditions.
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LPG Fueled Diesel Engine-Dual-Fuel Method

AIST-Shinichi Goto, Hidehiro Furutani
Nissan Kohki Co., Ltd.-Kazutaka Kida
  • Technical Paper
  • 928058
Published 1992-05-12 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The authors tried to use LP gas, mainly butane, as the main fuel of diesel engines to reduce soot and to maintain high thermal efficiency. LP gas was injected in the direction of the intake valve directly as a spray to prevent knocking and to preserve high charging efficiency. As a result, the dual-fuel operation produced high thermal efficiency almost identical to that of diesel engines. Soot in engine exhaust was almost negligible.