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Comparative Study on the Effects of Inlet Heating, Inlet Boosting, and Double-Injection Strategy on Partially Premixed Combustion

Eindhoven University Of Technology-Jinlin Han, Shuli Wang, Bart Somers
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) is a low temperature combustion (LTC) concept which can relieve soot-NOx trade-off without sacrificing efficiency. However, at low load operating range, PPC with low reactivity fuel generally undergoes long ignition delay, which gives rise to high pressure rise rate, fast heat release and even misfires. To solve these problems and maintain high efficiency simultaneously, inlet heating, inlet boosting and double-injection strategy are experimentally investigated in a heavy-duty engine. BH80 (80vol% n-butanol and 20vol% n-heptane) are blended and tested at 8 bar gIMEP in PPC mode. Inlet heating (from 40oC to 100oC), inlet boosting (from 1.4 bar to 2.5 bar) and a double-injection strategy (pilot/main injection) are attempted to reduce the maximum pressure rise rate (PRRmax). The results show that all three methods can achieve negligible soot emissions. Moreover, a correlation between global temperature at TDC and ignition delay is noticed. In other words, high global temperature after compression stroke makes BH80 easier to ignite. As a consequence, the ignition delay shortens and the maximum pressure rise rate decreases. Compared to inlet…
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Performance and Emission Studies in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Fueled with an N-Butanol and N-Heptane Blend

Eindhoven University of Technology-Shuli Wang, Jinlin Han, Bart Somers
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
N-butanol, as a biomass-based renewable fuel, has many superior fuel properties. It has a higher energy content and cetane number than its alcohol competitors, methanol and ethanol. Previous studies have proved that n-butanol has the capability to achieve lower emissions without sacrifice on thermal efficiency when blended with diesel. However, most studies on n-butanol are limited to low blending ratios, which restricts the improvement of emissions. In this paper, 80% by volume of n-butanol was blended with 20% by volume of n-heptane (namely BH80). The influences of various engine parameters (combustion phasing, EGR ratio, injection timing and intake pressure, respectively) on its combustion and emission characteristics are tested at different loads. The results showed that when BH80 uses more than 40% EGR, the emitted soot and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions are below the EURO VI legislation. Carbon monoxide (CO) decreases and NOx emissions increase with the increase of injection pressure. It was also found that for a constant lambda (1.55) the stable operating load range of BH80 is limited to relatively high load (>8 bar…
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Effects of Different Injection Strategies and EGR on Partially Premixed Combustion

Eindhoven University of Technology-Jinlin Han, Shuli Wang, Bart Somers
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Premixed Charge Compression Ignition concepts are promising to reduce NOx and soot simultaneously and keeping a high thermal efficiency. Partially premixed combustion is a single fuel variant of this new combustion concepts applying a fuel with a low cetane number to achieve the necessary long ignition delay. In this study, multiple injection strategies are studied in the partially premixed combustion approach to reach stable combustion and ultra-low NOx and soot emission at 15.5 bar gross indicated mean effective pressure. Three different injection strategies (single injection, pilot-main injection, main-post injection) are experimentally investigated on a heavy duty compression ignition engine. A fuel blend (70 vol% n-butanol and 30 vol% n-heptane) was tested. The effects of different pilot and post-injection timing, as well as Exhaust-gas Recirculation rate on different injection strategies investigated. All the measurements were performed at the same load, combustion phasing, lambda and engine speed. The results show that all three injection strategies produced ultra-low soot emission, while less NOx emission was noticed for pilot-main injection because of less diffusion combustion mode. Pilot-main injection strategy…
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Experimental Study on the Potential of Higher Octane Number Fuels for Low Load Partially Premixed Combustion

Eindhoven University of Technology-Shuli Wang, Kyle van der Waart, Bart Somers, Philip de Goey
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The optimal fuel for partially premixed combustion (PPC) is considered to be a gasoline boiling range fuel with an octane number around 70. Higher octane number fuels are considered problematic with low load and idle conditions. In previous studies mostly the intake air temperature did not exceed 30 °C. Possibly increasing intake air temperatures could extend the load range.In this study primary reference fuels (PRFs), blends of iso-octane and n-heptane, with octane numbers of 70, 80, and 90 are tested in an adapted commercial diesel engine under partially premixed combustion mode to investigate the potential of these higher octane number fuels in low load and idle conditions.During testing combustion phasing and intake air temperature are varied to investigate the combustion and emission characteristics under low load and idle conditions. The results show that PRF70, 80 and 90 present stable combustion when an intake temperature higher than 60 °C is used at low load and idle conditions. The coefficient of variations of the gross indicated mean effective pressure (COVIMEPgross) is below 3% and 4.5% at low…
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Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Heavy Duty Engine Fueled with Two Ternary Blends of N-Heptane/Iso-Octane and Toluene or Benzaldehyde

Eindhoven University of Technology-Shuli Wang, Xinda Zhu, L.M.T. Somers, L.P.H. de Goey
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
In this work, the influences of aromatics on combustion and emission characteristics from a heavy-duty diesel engine under various loads and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) conditions are investigated. Tests were performed on a modified single-cylinder, constant-speed and direct-injection diesel engine. An engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS) was used in the experiments to measure the size distribution of engine-exhaust particle emissions in the range from 5.6 to 560 nm. Two ternary blends of n-heptane, iso-octane with either toluene or benzaldehyde denoted as TRF and CRF, were tested, diesel was also tested as a reference. Test results showed that TRF has the longest ignition delay, thus providing the largest premixed fraction which is beneficial to reduce soot. However, as the load increases, higher incylinder pressure and temperature make all test fuels burn easily, leading to shorter ignition delays and more diffusion combustion. For each test fuel, the particulate number concentration in nucleation mode decreased with the increase of EGR rate, while more particles in accumulation mode were generated. Moreover, compared with TRF and CRF, diesel produces the…
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