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A New Approach of Generating Travel Demands for Smart Transportation Systems Modeling

Ford Motor Company-Zhen Jiang, Chen Liang, Cassandra Telenko, Bo Wang, Yan Fu
Purdue University-Ruoxi Wen, Hua Cai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1047
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The transportation sector is facing three revolutions: shared mobility, electrification, and autonomous driving. To inform decision making and guide smart transportation system development at the city-level, it is critical to model and evaluate how travelers will behave in these systems. Two key components in such models are (1) individual travel demands with high spatial and temporal resolutions, and (2) travelers’ sociodemographic information and trip purposes. These components impact one’s acceptance of autonomous vehicles, adoption of electric vehicles, and participation in shared mobility. Existing methods of travel demand generation either lack travelers’ demographic information and trip purposes, or only generate trips at a zonal level. Higher resolution demand and sociodemographic data can enable analysis of trips’ shareability for car sharing and ride pooling and evaluation of electric vehicles’ charging needs. To address this data gap, we propose a new approach of travel demand generation based on households. Census data provide the demographic information for each household (e.g., the number of adults and kids, income and education level, vehicle ownership etc.). The travel demands of each individual…
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Improving Multi-Axle Vehicle Steering Coordination Performance Based on the Concept of Instantaneous Wheel Turn Center

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

GAC Automotive Research & Development Center, China-Bo Wang, Hongshan Zha, Guoqi Zhong, Shijing Weng, Qin Li
Jilin University, China-Pingping Lu
  • Journal Article
  • 02-12-02-0010
Published 2019-03-14 by SAE International in United States
A new concept of instantaneous wheel turn center (IWTC) is proposed to evaluate and improve multi-axle vehicle steering coordination performance. The concept of IWTC and its calculation method are studied. The index named dispersion of IWTC is developed to evaluate the vehicle steering coordination performance quantitatively. The simulation tests based on a three-axle off-road vehicle model are conducted under different vehicle velocities and lateral accelerations. The simulation results show that the turn centers of different wheels are disperse, and the dispersion becomes larger with the increase of vehicle velocities and lateral acceleration. Since suspension has important influences on vehicle steering performance, the genetic algorithm is used to optimize the suspension hard points and bushing stiffness, aiming at minimizing the dispersion of wheel turn centers (DWTC) to improve the vehicle steering coordination performance. The optimization results indicate that the suspension optimization can effectively reduce the DWTC and improve the vehicle steering coordination performance. The proposed wheel turn center method provides an index and tool for the suspension design and optimization in the pre-development phase of the…
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Driver Identification Using Vehicle Telematics Data

Ford Motor Company-Bo Wang, Smruti Panigrahi, Mayur Narsude, Amit Mohanty
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Increasing number of vehicles are equipped with telematics devices and are able to transmit vehicle CAN bus information remotely. This paper examines the possibility of identifying individual drivers from their driving signatures embedded in these telematics data. The vehicle telematics data used in this study were collected from a small fleet of 30 Ford Fiesta vehicles driven by 30 volunteer drivers over 15 days of real-world driving in London, UK. The collected CAN signals included vehicle speed, accelerator pedal position, brake pedal pressure, steering wheel angle, gear position, and engine RPM. These signals were collected at approximately 5Hz frequency and transmitted to the cloud for offline driver identification modeling. A list of driving metrics was developed to quantify driver behaviors, such as mean brake pedal pressure and longitudinal jerk. Random Forest (RF) was used to predict driver IDs based on the developed driving metrics. The RF model was also used to rank the importance of each driving metric on driver identification. In conclusion, this paper demonstrated the possibility of identifying drivers from their on-road naturalistic…
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The Development of a Small Restricted Turbocharged Racecar Engine

China FAW Technology Ctr-Dingchao Qian
Columbia University-Bo Wang
Published 2016-11-08 by SAE International in United States
This paper summarized the development methodology and technical experiences on Formula Student racecar engines acquired by Jilin University from 2011 to 2015. This series of engines are all based on 600cc 4-cylinder motorcycle gasoline engines and were modified to turbocharged engines which met the Formula Student technical regulations, in order to achieve higher power output, wider torque band as well as lower fuel consumption.During the development process, multiple research projects have been conducted surrounding the turbocharging technology. These research projects have covered multiple areas including the matching of the flow rate characteristics of the engine and the turbocharger, the design of intake and exhaust systems, research on the wastegate as well as its actuator, the tuning and control of the boost pressure as well as the design of the lubrication system for the turbocharger, etc. The utilized research methods included 1D CFD engine performance analysis, 3D CFD fluid analysis as well as the engine dyno test.The experiment and analysis results showed that, the developed engine, with the installation of a 20mm intake restrictor, was able…
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Study of Near Nozzle Spray Characteristics of Ethanol under Different Saturation Ratios

Birmingham University-Tawfik Badawy
Birmingham University/Tsinghua University-Hongming Xu, Yizhou Jiang
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
Atomization of fuel sprays is a key factor in controlling the combustion quality in the direct-injection engines. In this present work, the effect of saturation ratio (Rs) on the near nozzle spray patterns of ethanol was investigated using an ultra-high speed imaging technique. The Rs range covered both flash-boiling and non-flash boiling regions. Ethanol was injected from a single-hole injector into an optically accessible constant volume chamber at a fixed injection pressure of 40 MPa with different fuel temperatures and back pressures. High-speed imaging was performed using an ultrahigh speed camera (1 million fps) coupled with a long-distance microscope. Under non-flash boiling conditions, the effect of Rs on fuel development was small but observable. Clear fuel collision can be observed at Rs=1.5 and 1.0. Under the flash boiling conditions, near-nozzle spray patterns were significant different from the non-flash boiling ones. Reducing Rs from 1.0 to 0.2 would lead to clear radial expansion in both the initial and quasi-steady stages due to the bubble formation and explosion. However, the micro cone angle was smaller when further…
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Effects of Sinusoidal Whole Body Vibration Frequency on Drivers' Muscle Responses

China Agricultural University-Xiaoping Jin
Shihezi University-Chao Zeng
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Low back pain has a higher prevalence among drivers who have long term history of vehicle operations. Vehicle vibration has been considered to contribute to the onset of low back pain. However, the fundamental mechanism that relates vibration to low back pain is still not clear. Little is known about the relationship between vibration exposure, the biomechanical response, and the physiological responses of the seated human. The aim of this study was to determine the vibration frequency that causes the increase of muscle activity that can lead to muscle fatigue and low back pain. This study investigated the effects of various vibration frequencies on the lumbar and thoracic paraspinal muscle responses among 11 seated volunteers exposed to sinusoidal whole body vibration varying from 4Hz to 30Hz at 0.4 g of acceleration. The accelerations of the seat and the pelvis were recorded during various frequency of vibrations. Muscle activity was measured using electromyography (EMG). The results demonstrated that peak muscle response from both upper and low back occurred at 5-6 Hz frequencies, which are also reported…
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Time-resolved Emission Characteristics of Gasoline Vehicle Particle Number and Size Distributions

Beijing Institute of Technology and Southwest Forestry College-Chao He
National Lab of Auto Performance & Emission Test, Beijing Institute of Technology-Yunshan Ge, Jianwei Tan, Asad Naeem Shah, Bo Wang
Published 2008-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Particle emissions of seven gasoline vehicles were measured using an electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) over the new European driving cycle (NEDC). Two dilution systems were utilized: one is constant volume system (CVS) for constant exhaust volume and the other is ejector dilutor for constant dilution ratio. Then the time-resolved number concentration, size distributions and total particle number were obtained. The effects of misfire rate and oxygen sensor failure on the particle emission were also studied in order to primarily examine the on-board diagnoses of particle number emission of gasoline vehicle.The results indicate that the particles emitted by gasoline vehicles are mainly in the form of nuclei mode in diameter range from 7 nm to 55 nm. The specific number emissions vary from 1.56×1013 to 8.42×1013 particles/km and GMD ranges from 27 to 50nm. Higher misfire rate results in lower total particle number emission while oxygen sensor failure deteriorates the particle number emission of gasoline vehicle.
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Developments in Airbag Cover Materials

Vi-Chem Corp.-Bo Wang
Published 2001-03-05 by SAE International in United States
The selection criteria of TPE materials for airbag cover application are discussed. Properties of newly developed compounds for mar and scratch resistance are revealed. The performance of these materials is summarized.
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