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Wallington, Timothy J.
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ERRATUM

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Ford Motor Company, USA-James C. Ball, James E. Anderson, Dairene Uy, Timothy J. Wallington
Michigan State University, USA-Jacob A. Duckworth
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-03-0015.1
Published 2020-01-29 by SAE International in United States
Erratum
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Oxidation of Soybean Biodiesel Fuel in Diesel Engine Oils

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Ford Motor Company, USA-James C. Ball, James E. Anderson, Dairene Uy, Timothy J. Wallington
Michigan State University, USA-Jacob A. Duckworth
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-03-0015
Published 2019-12-05 by SAE International in United States
During diesel engine operation, some fuel is entrained in engine oil, particularly as a consequence of strategies to regenerate NOx traps or particle filters. This “fuel dilution” of oil can adversely affect engine oil properties and performance. Compared to diesel fuel, biodiesel is more prone to fuel dilution and more susceptible to oxidation. Oxidation stability experiments were conducted at 160°C using a modified Rapid Small-Scale Oxidation Test (RSSOT) and a Rancimat instrument with 0, 5, 10, and 20 wt% biodiesel in four fully formulated engine oils, two partially formulated engine oils, and two base oils. These experiments showed decreasing oxidation stability with increasing biodiesel content. An exception was noted with the least stable oils (two base oils and one engine oil) in which 5 wt% biodiesel improved the oxidation stability relative to oil without biodiesel. Experiments with biodiesel distillation fractions identified this stability enhancement within the least volatile biodiesel fraction, consistent with natural antioxidants in the biodiesel. Omission of two engine oil additives, antioxidants and zinc dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDDP), led to an unexpected increase in oxidation…
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Soy Biodiesel Oxidation at Vehicle Fuel System Temperature: Influence of Aged Fuel on Fresh Fuel Degradation to Simulate Refueling

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Ford Motor Company-James E. Anderson, Travis R. Collings, Sherry A. Mueller, James C. Ball, Timothy J. Wallington
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0809
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
An experimental study of the effects of partially-oxidized biodiesel fuel on the degradation of fresh fuel was performed. A blend of soybean oil fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) in petroleum diesel fuel (30% v:v biodiesel, B30) was aged under accelerated conditions (90°C with aeration). Aging conditions focused on three different degrees of initial oxidation: 1) reduced oxidation stability (Rancimat induction period, IP); 2) high peroxide values (PV); and 3) high total acid number (TAN). Aged B30 fuel was mixed with fresh B30 fuel at two concentrations (10% and 30% m:m) and degradation of the mixtures at the above aging conditions was monitored for IP, PV, TAN, and FAME composition. Greater content of aged fuel carryover (30% m:m) corresponded to stronger effects. Oxidation stability was most adversely affected by high peroxide concentration (Scenario 2), while peroxide content was most reduced for the high TAN scenario (Scenario 3). However, changes in TAN and FAME composition were modest with all four scenarios reaching a plateau in TAN formation at similar times and FAME concentrations showing similar declines. The…
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Impact of Powertrain Type on Potential Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions from a Real World Lightweight Glider

Ford Motor Company-Hyung Chul Kim, Robert De Kleine, Timothy J. Wallington
University of Toronto-Jason M. Luk, Heather L. MacLean
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
This study investigates the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a set of vehicles using two real-world gliders (vehicles without powertrains or batteries); a steel-intensive 2013 Ford Fusion glider and a multi material lightweight vehicle (MMLV) glider that utilizes significantly more aluminum and carbon fiber. These gliders are used to develop lightweight and conventional models of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV). Our results show that the MMLV glider can reduce life cycle GHG emissions despite its use of lightweight materials, which can be carbon intensive to produce, because the glider enables a decrease in fuel (production and use) cycle emissions. However, the fuel savings, and thus life cycle GHG emission reductions, differ substantially depending on powertrain type. Compared to ICVs, the high efficiency of HEVs decreases the potential fuel savings. BEVs are more efficient than HEVs but require heavy batteries to provide an acceptable driving range. A lightweight glider can allow a smaller battery to be used without sacrificing driving range. Battery downsizing is a…
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Issues with T50 and T90 as Match Criteria for Ethanol-Gasoline Blends

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

AVL Powertrain Engineering Inc.-Robert A. Stein
Ford Motor Co.-James E. Anderson, Timothy J. Wallington
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-9080
Published 2014-11-01 by SAE International in United States
Modification of gasoline blendstock composition in preparing ethanol-gasoline blends has a significant impact on vehicle exhaust emissions. In “splash” blending the blendstock is fixed, ethanol-gasoline blend compositions are clearly defined, and effects on emissions are relatively straightforward to interpret. In “match” blending the blendstock composition is modified for each ethanol-gasoline blend to match one or more fuel properties. The effects on emissions depend on which fuel properties are matched and what modifications are made, making trends difficult to interpret. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that exclusive use of a match blending approach has fundamental flaws.For typical gasolines without ethanol, the distillation profile is a smooth, roughly linear relationship of temperature vs. percent fuel distilled. Hence the use of three points on the curve (T10, T50, and T90, defined as the 10%v, 50%v, and 90%v evaporated temperatures) has been sufficient to define their volatility-related behavior in engines. These parameters are commonly “matched” in studies intended to evaluate fuel composition effects on emissions. For ethanol-gasoline blends, higher boiling-point hydrocarbons must be added to match…
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A Life Cycle Assessment of Natural Fiber Reinforced Composites in Automotive Applications

Ford Motor Co.-Hyung Chul Kim, Ellen Lee, Timothy J. Wallington
Univ. of Michigan-Claire Boland, Robb DeKleine, Aditi Moorthy, Gregory Keoleian
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Automakers have the opportunity to utilize bio-based composite materials to lightweight cars while replacing conventional, nonrenewable resource materials. In this study, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used to understand the potential benefits and tradeoffs associated with the implementation of bio-based composite materials in automotive component production. This cradle-to-grave approach quantifies the fiber and resin production as well as material processing, use, and end of life for both a conventional glass-reinforced polypropylene component as well as a cellulose-reinforced polypropylene component. The comparison is calculated for an exterior component on a high performance vehicle. The life cycle primary energy consumption and global warming potential (GWP) are evaluated. Reduced GWP associated with the alternative component are due to the use of biomass as process energy and carbon sequestration, in addition to the alternative material component's lightweighting effect. Sensitivity analyses exploring both the effect of the automobile's lifetime as well as material sourcing is explored.
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An Overview of the Effects of Ethanol-Gasoline Blends on SI Engine Performance, Fuel Efficiency, and Emissions

SAE International Journal of Engines

AVL Powertrain Engineering Inc.-Robert A. Stein
Ford Motor Company-James E. Anderson, Timothy J. Wallington
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1635
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
This paper provides an overview of the effects of blending ethanol with gasoline for use in spark ignition engines. The overview is written from the perspective of considering a future ethanol-gasoline blend for use in vehicles that have been designed to accommodate such a fuel. Therefore discussion of the effects of ethanol-gasoline blends on older legacy vehicles is not included.As background, highlights of future emissions regulations are discussed. The effects on fuel properties of blending ethanol and gasoline are described. The substantial increase in knock resistance and full load performance associated with the addition of ethanol to gasoline is illustrated with example data. Aspects of fuel efficiency enabled by increased ethanol content are reviewed, including downsizing and downspeeding opportunities, increased compression ratio, fundamental effects associated with ethanol combustion, and reduced enrichment requirement at high speed/high load conditions. The effects of ethanol content on emissions are also reviewed, including NMOG/CO/NOX, particulate matter, toxic compounds, and off-cycle and evaporative emissions.Considering the engine and vehicle-related factors reviewed in this paper, a mid-level ethanol-gasoline blend (greater than E20 and…
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Octane Numbers of Ethanol-Gasoline Blends: Measurements and Novel Estimation Method from Molar Composition

AVL Powertrain Engineering Inc.-Dusan Polovina
BP Products North America Inc.-Michael Foster, Michael G. Lynskey
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Ethanol has a high octane rating and can be added to gasoline to produce high octane fuel blends. Understanding the octane increase with ethanol blending is of great fundamental and practical importance. Potential issues with fuel flow rate and fuel vaporization have led to questions of the accuracy of octane measurements for ethanol-gasoline blends with moderate to high ethanol content (e.g., E20-E85) using the Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR™) engine. The nonlinearity of octane ratings with volumetric ethanol content makes it difficult to assess the accuracy of such measurements.In the present study, Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) were measured for a matrix of ethanol-gasoline blends spanning a wide range of ethanol content (E0, E10, E20, E30, E50, E75) in a set of gasoline blendstocks spanning a range of RON values (82, 88, 92, and 95). Octane ratings for neat ethanol, denatured ethanol, and hydrous ethanol were also measured. One set of measurements was conducted using a CFR™ engine equipped with manufacturer-supplied enhancements (GE Energy Waukesha XCP-OA™ digital octane panel) for digital knock…
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Implications of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 for the US Light-Duty Vehicle Fleet

AVL Powertrain Engineering, Inc-Richard E. Baker
Ford Motor Company-James E. Anderson, Pete J. Hardigan, John M. Ginder, Timothy J. Wallington
Published 2009-11-02 by SAE International in United States
The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 established a new Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) requiring increased biofuel use (through 2022) and greater fuel economy (through 2030) for the US light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet. Ethanol from corn and cellulose is expected to supply most of the biofuel and be used in blends with gasoline. A model was developed to assess the potential impact of these mandates on the US LDV fleet. Sensitivity to assumptions regarding future diesel prevalence, fuel economy, ethanol supply, ethanol blending options, availability of flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs), and extent of E85 use was assessed. With no E85 use, we estimate that the national-average ethanol blend level would need to rise from E5 in 2007 to approximately E10 in 2012 and E24 in 2022. Nearly all (97%) US gasoline LDVs were not designed to operate with blends greater than E10. FFVs are designed to use ethanol blends up to E85 but comprise only 3% of the fleet. To satisfy the RFS2 using E10 and E85 requires very large scale introduction of FFVs (tens…
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Simultaneous Real-Time Measurements of NO and NO2 in Medium Duty Diesel Truck Exhaust

Ford Motor Company-Christine A. Gierczak, Thomas J. Korniski, Timothy J. Wallington
Sensors, Inc.-Carl D. Ensfield
Published 2007-04-16 by SAE International in United States
The goal of the present work was to investigate the ability of the SEMTECH®-D Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS) to provide simultaneous, accurate, real-time (1Hz) measurements of NO and NO2 in vehicle exhaust. Extensive chassis dynamometer laboratory evaluation studies of the SEMTECH® system were conducted. The instantaneous (1Hz) NOx emissions were measured using a conventional chemiluminescence analyzer (CLA) and were compared to the sum of the instantaneous NO and NO2 measurements from the SEMTECH®-D. The sum of the NO and NO2 emissions measured by the SEMTECH® were in excellent agreement (within 95% in most cases) with the total NOx measurements from the conventional CLA.During the laboratory evaluation studies, several Federal Test Procedure (FTP) drive cycles were conducted. Examples of the NO and NO2 concentration and mass emissions measured using the SEMTECH®-D are presented along with the corresponding SEMTECH®-D detection limits. From the data it is clearly evident that the NO and the NO2 levels measured were, in most cases, well above the detection limits of the SEMTECH®-D. The results also indicate that for the vehicles…
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