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Development of a Vehicle-Level Simulation Model for Evaluating the Trade-Off between Various Advanced On-Board Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Fuel Cell Vehicles

Ford Motor Company-Michael Veenstra
National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Matthew Thornton, Aaron Brooker, Jonathon Cosgrove
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
One of the most critical elements in engineering a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle is the design of the on-board hydrogen storage system. Because the current compressed-gas hydrogen storage technology has several key challenges, including cost, volume and capacity, materials-based storage technologies are being evaluated as an alternative approach. These materials-based hydrogen storage technologies include metal hydrides, chemical hydrides, and adsorbent materials, all of which have drawbacks of their own. To optimize the engineering of storage systems based on these materials, it is critical to understand the impacts these systems will have on the overall vehicle system performance and what trade-offs between the hydrogen storage systems and the vehicle systems might exist that allow these alternative storage approaches to be viable.To gain a better understanding of the interactions that exist between various materials-based hydrogen storage systems and the vehicle system as well as the engineering challenges that exist when integrating one of these systems with a vehicle, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a vehicle-level model designed to be sensitive to these issues. The Hydrogen…
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Establishing Localized Fire Test Methods and Progressing Safety Standards for FCVs and Hydrogen Vehicles

American Honda Motor Co. Inc.-Tommy Wei-Lii Chang
Ford Motor Co-Michael Veenstra
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
The SAE Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) Safety Working Group has been addressing FCV safety for over 11 years. In the past couple of years, significant attention has been directed toward a revision to the standard for vehicular hydrogen systems, SAE J2579(1). In addition to streamlining test methodologies for verification of Compressed Hydrogen Storage Systems (CHSSs) as discussed last year,(2) the working group has been considering the effect of vehicle fires, with the major focus on a small or localized fire that could damage the container in the CHSS and allow a burst before the Pressure Relief Device (PRD) can activate and safely vent the compressed hydrogen stored from the container.Even though there have been no incidents of localized fire causing failure of CHSS in FCVs or hydrogen vehicles, a few incidents of localized fire and subsequent container burst have occurred in Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) vehicles.(3,4) Given the potential severity of such an event, the Safety Working Group decided to address this potential failure mode by developing a new systems level test to demonstrate the…
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Developing Safety Standards for FCVs and Hydrogen Vehicles

Ford Motor Co.-Michael Veenstra
GWS Solutions of Tolland LLC-Glenn W. Scheffler
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
The SAE Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) Safety Working Group has been addressing FCV safety for over 10 years. The initial document, SAE J2578, was published in 2002. SAE J2578 has been valuable as a Recommended Practice for FCV development with regard to the identification of hazards associated with the integration of hydrogen and electrical systems onto the vehicle and the definition of countermeasures to mitigate these hazards such that FCVs can be operated in the same manner as conventional gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE)-powered vehicles. An update to SAE J1766 for post-crash electrical safety was also published in 2008 to reflect unique aspects of FCVs and to harmonize electrical requirements with international standards. In addition to SAE J2578 and J1766, the SAE FCV Safety Working Group also developed a Technical Information Report (TIR) for vehicular hydrogen systems (SAE J2579). The objective of this document was to define systems-level, performance-based requirements for vehicular hydrogen storage systems, particularly compressed hydrogen storage systems as most FCVs currently use this form of storage. The TIR has been verified to…
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Developing Safety Standards for FCVs and Hydrogen Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Ballard Power Systems-Jake DeVaal
Chrysler LLC-Jesse Schneider
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-0011
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
The SAE Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) Safety Working Group has been addressing FCV safety for over 9 years. The initial document, SAE J2578, was published in 2002. SAE J2578 has been valuable as a Recommended Practice for FCV development with regard to the identification of hazards and the definition of countermeasures to mitigate these hazards such that FCVs can be operated in the same manner as conventional gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE)-powered vehicles.SAE J2578 is currently being revised so that it will continue to be relevant as FCV development moves forward. For example, test methods were refined to verify the acceptability of hydrogen discharges when parking in residential garages and commercial structures and after crash tests prescribed by government regulation, and electrical requirements were updated to reflect the complexities of modern electrical circuits which interconnect both AC and DC circuits to improve efficiency and reduce cost.An update to SAE J1766 for post-crash electrical safety was also published in 2008 to reflect unique aspects of FCVs and to harmonize electrical requirements with international standards.In addition to…
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Developing Safety Standards for FCVs and Hydrogen Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Ballard Power Systems-Jake DeVaal
Daimler Chrysler-Jesse Schneider
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-0725
Published 2008-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The SAE FCV Safety Working Group has been addressing fuel cell vehicle (FCV) safety for over 8 years. The initial document, SAE J2578, was published in 2002. SAE J2578 has been valuable to FCV development with regard to the identification of hazards and the definition of countermeasures to mitigate these hazards such that FCVs can be operated in the same manner as conventional gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE)-powered vehicles. J2578 is currently being updated to clarify and update requirements so that it will continue to be relevant and useful in the future.An update to SAE J1766 for post-crash electrical safety was also published to reflect unique aspects of FCVs and to harmonize electrical requirements with international standards.In addition to revising SAE J2578 and J1766, the Working Group is also developing a new Technical Information Report (TIR) for vehicular hydrogen systems (SAE J2579). The initial focus of this document is compressed hydrogen, as most FCVs currently use this form of storage. Systems-level, performance-based requirements are being established to demonstrate that hydrogen can be safely contained within…
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Developing Safety Standards for FCVs and Hydrogen Vehicles

American Honda-Tommy Chang
Ballard Power Systems-Jake DeVaal
Published 2007-04-16 by SAE International in United States
The SAE FCV Safety Working Group has been addressing fuel cell vehicle (FCV) safety for over 7 years. The initial document, SAE J2578, was published in 2002. SAE J2578 has been valuable to the FCV development with regard to the identification of hazards and the definition of countermeasures to mitigate these hazards such that FCVs can be operated in the same manner as conventional gasoline IC-powered vehicles. The document is currently being updated to clarify and update requirements so that the document will continue to be relevant and useful in the future.In addition to developing draft revisions to SAE J2578, the working group has updated SAE J1766 and is developing a new recommended practice on vehicular hydrogen systems (SAE J2579).The documents are written from the standpoint of systems-level, performance-based requirements. A risk-based approach was used to identify potential electrical and fuel system hazards and provide criteria for acceptance. As a recommended practice, documents often describe approaches that may be used to mitigate potential risks, but the use of design-prescriptive margins and requirements are minimized in…
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Developing Safety Standards for FCVs and Hydrogen Vehicles

American Honda-Tommy Chang
Daimler Chrysler-Jesse Schneider
Published 2006-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The SAE Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) Safety Working Group has published and is developing standards for FCVs and hydrogen vehicles. SAE J2578 was the first document published by the working group. The document is written from an overall vehicle perspective and deals with the integration of fuel cell and hydrogen systems in the vehicle and the management of risks associated with these systems. Since the publishing of SAE J2578, the working group has updated SAE J1766 regarding post-crash electrical safety and is developing SAE J2579 which deals with vehicular hydrogen systems.
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