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Effects of Prechamber on Efficiency Improvement and Emissions Reduction of a SI Engine Fuelled with Gasoline

Istituto Motori CNR-Paolo Sementa, Francesco Catapano, Silvana Di Iorio, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
The permanent aim of the automotive industry is the further improvement of the engine efficiency and the simultaneous pollutant emissions reduction.The aim of the study was the optimization of the gasoline combustion by means of a passive prechamber. This analysis allowed the improvement of the engine efficiency in lean-burn operation condition too. The investigation was carried out in a commercial small Spark Ignition (SI) engine fueled with gasoline and equipped with a proper designed passive prechamber.It was analyzed the effects of the prechamber on engine performance, Indicated Mean Effective Pressure, Heat Release Rate and Fuel Consumption were used. Gaseous emissions were measured as well. Particulate Mass, Number and Size Distributions were analyzed. Emissions samples were taken from the exhaust flow, just downstream of the valves. Four different engine speeds were investigated, namely 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 rpm. Stoichiometric and lean conditions at full load were considered in all tests. The results were compared with those obtained with the engine equipped with the standard spark plug. The results indicated that both performance and emissions were…
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Knock Onset Detection Methods Evaluation by In-Cylinder Direct Observation

Istituto Motori CNR-Francesco Catapano, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Improvement of performance and emission of future internal combustion engine for passenger cars is mandatory during the transition period toward their substitution with electric propulsion systems. In middle time, direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines could offer a good compromise between fuel economy and exhaust emissions. However, abnormal combustion and particularly knock and super-knock are some of the most important obstacles to the improvement of SI engines efficiency. Although knock has been studied for many years and its basic characteristics are clear, phenomena involved in its occurrence are very complex and are still worth of investigation. In particular, the definition of an absolute knock intensity and the precise determination of the knock onset are arduous and many indexes and methodologies has been proposed.In this work, most used methods for knock onset detection from in- cylinder pressure signal have been considered. Moreover, knock intensity has been evaluated by means of two common indexes. High speed imaging has been carried out in the combustion chamber of a high performance DISI engine provided with an optical window in…
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Experimental Investigation of a Fueled Prechamber Combustion in an Optical Small Displacement SI Methane Engine

Istituto Motori CNR-Paolo Sementa, Francesco Catapano, SILVANA Di Iorio, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The constant aim of the automotive industry is the further improvement of engine efficiency and the simultaneous reduction of the exhaust emissions. In order to optimize the internal combustion engines it is necessary to further improve the basic knowledge of the thermo-fluid dynamic phenomena occurring during the combustion process. In this context, the application of optical diagnostic techniques permits a deep insight into the fundamental processes such as flow development, fuel injection, and combustion process. In this paper the analysis of the combustion process of gaseous fuel ignited by the plasma jets coming from a prechamber was performed. The investigation was carried out in an optically accessible small Direct Injection Spark-Ignition (DI SI) engine fueled with Methane. The ignition was obtained with a properly designed fueled prechamber prototype. It was equipped with a gas Direct Injector, used to inject the fuel into the prechamber, and a spark plug used to ignite the mixture. The combustion of the prechamber mixture generates four plasma jets that quickly ignite the mixture into the combustion chamber. The development of…
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Temperature Measurements of the Piston Optical Window in a Research Compression Ignition Engine to Set-Up a 1d Model of Heat Transfer in Transient Conditions

Istituto Motori CNR-Ezio Mancaruso, Luigi Sequino, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The analysis of heat losses in internal combustion engines (ICEs) is fundamental to evaluate and to improve engine efficiency. Detailed and reliable heat transfer models are required for more complex 1d-3d combustion models. At the same time, the thermal status of engine components, like pistons, is needed for an efficient design. Measurements of piston temperature during ICEs operation represent an important and challenging result to get for the aforementioned purposes. In the present work, temperature measurements collected at different engine speeds and loads, both in motored and fired modes, have been performed and used to set-up a theoretical correlation and 1d model of heat transfer through the optical window of the piston. The in-cylinder gas and external ambient temperature, together with the thermodynamic and material properties are given. The model has been first calibrated in some selected operating conditions and then validated in the remaining. The aim of the 1d model is to simulate the transient of temperature during the engine warm up in motored, from the engine start up to the steady motored condition;…
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A Mixing Timescale Model for PDF Simulations of LTC Combustion Process in Internal Combustion Engines

Istituto Motori CNR-Ezio Mancaruso, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
University of Versailles Saint Quentin-Fadila Maroteaux
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Transported probability density function (PDF) methods are currently being pursued as a viable approach to model the effects of turbulent mixing and mixture stratification, especially for new alternative combustion modes as for example Homogeneous Charge Compression ignition (HCCI) which is one of the advanced low temperature combustion (LTC) concepts. Recently, they have been applied to simple engine configurations to demonstrate the importance of accurate accounting for turbulence/chemistry interactions. PDF methods can explicitly account for the turbulent fluctuations in species composition and temperature relative to mean value. The choice of the mixing model is an important aspect of PDF approach. Different mixing models can be found in the literature, the most popular is the IEM model (Interaction by Exchange with the Mean). This model is very similar to the LMSE model (Linear Mean Square Estimation). Other models are available in the literature, e.g. the MC model (Modified Curl model), the EMST model (Euclidian Minimum Spanning Tree) and the PMSR model (Pairwise Mixing Stirred Reactor). The IEM and the LMSE models relax scalar values in each particle…
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Analysis of the Effect of the Sampling Conditions on the sub-23 nm Particles Emitted by a Small Displacement PFI and DI SI Engines Fueled with Gasoline, Ethanol and a Blend

Istituto Motori CNR-Silvana Di Iorio, Francesco Catapano, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI DEL SANNIO-Gaetano Continillo, Gianmarco Petito
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The growing concerns on the emission of particles smaller than 23 nm, which are harmful to human health, lead to the necessity of introducing a regulation for these particles not yet included in the current emission standards. Considering that measurements of concentration of sub-23 nm particles are particularly sensitive to the sampling conditions, it is important to identify an effective assessment procedure.Aim of this paper is the characterization of the effect of the sampling conditions on sub-23 nm particles, emitted by PFI (port fuel injection) and DI (direct injection) spark ignition engines fueled with gasoline, ethanol and a mixture of ethanol and gasoline (E30). The experimental activity was carried out on a 250 cm3 displacement four stroke GDI and PFI single cylinder engines. The tests were conducted at 2000 rpm and 4000 rpm full load, representative of the homologation urban driving cycle. Particle emissions were characterized in terms of mass concentration, by means of a Smokemeter, and of number and size in the range of 5.6-560 nm, through the Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS). The…
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Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Organic Particulate Matter from Exhaust After-Treatment System of Euro 6 Diesel Engine Operating at Full Load

FPT Motorenforschung AG-Wolfgang Gstrein, Konstantinos Priftis
Istituto Motori-CNR-Ezio Mancaruso, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0053
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The current legislation does not take into account the limitation of sub 23 nm particles from engine. Nevertheless, the Common Rail Diesel engine emits a large number of nanoparticle, solid and volatiles, that are very dangerous for human health. In this contest, the challenge of the “dieper EU project” is to apply advanced technologies for exhaust after-treatment to existing diesel engines and to optimize the characteristics of a new generation of engines with regards to emissions, fuel consumption and drivability.Aim of the present paper is to provide useful information for the development of the after-treatment system that will have to fulfill Euro6 further steps. In order to characterize the chemical and physical nature of Particulate Matter emitted from Euro 6b Medium Duty diesel engine, the pollutants were collected and analyzed: from engine-out, downstream of the particulate filter (DPF), and at the exit of a selective catalytic reactor (SCR). An array of chemical, physical and spectroscopic techniques (Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), mobility analyzer, UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy) was applied for characterizing the…
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Analysis of Dual Fuel Combustion in Single Cylinder Research Engine Fueled with Methane and Diesel by IR Diagnostics

Istituto Motori CNR-Ezio Mancaruso, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
University Parthenope & Istituto Motori-Michele Todino
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In the present study, dual fuel mode is investigated in a single cylinder optical compression ignition (CI) research engine. Methane is injected in the intake manifold while the diesel is delivered via the standard injector directly into the engine. The aim is to study by non-intrusive diagnostics the effect of increasing methane concentration at constant injected diesel amount during the combustion evolution from start of combustion.IR imaging is applied in cycle resolved mode. Three filters are adopted to detect from injection to combustion phase with high spatial and temporal resolution: OD1.45 (3-5.5 μm), band pass 3.3 μm (hydrocarbons) and band pass 4.2 μm (CO2).Using the band pass IR imaging qualitative information about fuel-vapor distribution and ignition locations during low and high temperature combustion have been provided.The detected combustion emission both in the visible and IR wavelength range is measured by the images and compared with the in-cylinder pressure measurements and the ROHR. It was observed that the ignition delay is not affected by the premixed charge of methane and the combustion duration increases adding higher…
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Quasi-Dimensional Simulation of Downsizing and Inverter Application for Efficient Part Load Operation of Spark Ignition Engine Driven Micro-Cogeneration Systems

Istituto Motori CNR-Adrian Irimescu, Francesco Catapano, Silvana Di Iorio, Simona Merola, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Within the context of distributed power generation, small size systems driven by spark ignition engines represent a valid and user-friendly choice, that ensures good fuel flexibility. One issue is that such applications are run at part load for extensive periods, thus lowering fuel economy. Employing an inverter (fitted between the generator and load) allows engine operation within a wide range of crankshaft rotational velocity, therefore improving efficiency. For the purpose of evaluating the benefits of this technology within a co-generation framework, two configurations were modeled by using the GT-Power simulation software. After model calibration based on measurements on a small size engine for two-wheel applications, the downsized version was compared to a larger power unit operated at constant engine speed for a scenario that featured up to 10 kW rated power. Indeed, the downsizing concept was found to ensure an electrical efficiency improvement of around 10% at 50% load, over 30% at 20% load, and reduced fuel consumption by over 50% at lower load. The co-generation potential was also evaluated, and it resulted practically the…
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Assessment of the New Features of a Prototype High-Pressure “Hollow Cone Spray” Diesel Injector by Means of Engine Performance Characterization and Spray Visualization

Istituto Motori CNR-Luigi Sequino, Giacomo Belgiorno, Gabriele Di Blasio, Ezio Mancaruso, Carlo Beatrice, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
The application of more efficient compression ignition combustion concepts requires advancement in terms of fuel injection technologies. The injector nozzle is the most critical component of the whole injection system for its impact on the combustion process. It is characterized by the number of holes, diameter, internal shape, and opening angle. The reduction of the nozzle hole diameter seems the simplest way to promote the atomization process but the number of holes must be increased to keep constant the injected fuel mass. This logic has been applied to the development of a new generation of injectors. First, the tendency to increase the nozzle number and to reduce the diameter has led to the replacement of the nozzle with a circular plate. The vertical movement of the needle generates an annulus area for the fuel delivery on 360 degrees, so controlling the atomization as a function of the vertical plate position. Second, on the base of the obtained results, the authors have introduced a new nozzle configuration. This is characterized by a hybrid fuel injection concept,…
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