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Uriot, Jérôme
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Assessment of Several THOR Thoracic Injury Criteria based on a New Post Mortem Human Subject Test Series and Recommendations

CEESAR-Jérôme Uriot, Pascal Potier, Pascal Baudrit
LAB PSA Renault-Xavier Trosseille, Philippe Petit
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-22-0012
Published 2020-03-31 by The Stapp Association in United States
Several studies, available in the literature, were conducted to establish the most relevant criterion for predicting the thoracic injury risk on the THOR dummy. The criteria, such as the maximum deflection or a combination of parameters including the difference between the chest right and left deflections, were all developed based on given samples of Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS). However, they were not validated against independent data and they are not always consistent with the observations from field data analysis. For this reason, 8 additional PMHS and matching THOR tests were carried out to assess the ability of the criteria to predict risks.Accident investigations showed that a reduction of the belt loads reduces the risk of rib fractures. Two configurations with different levels of force limitation were therefore chosen. A configuration representing an average European vehicle was chosen as a reference. It consists of a 3-point belt with a 3.5 kN and then 2 kN digressive limiter, combined with a 54-liter airbag. For better reproducibility and durability, the tests were performed with a pre-inflated bag…
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Human Shoulder Response to Lateral Impact in Intermediate Loading Conditions Between High-Velocity, Short-Duration and Low-Velocity, Long-Duration

CEESAR (Nanterre, France)-Matthieu Lebarbé, Pascal Potier, Jérôme Uriot, Pascal Baudrit
DGA TT (Bourges, France)-Denis Lafont
Published 2018-11-12 by The Stapp Association in United States
The EuroSID-2re (ES-2re) Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) commonly known as the crash test dummy is also used in the military domain to assess the risk of injury of armored vehicles occupants from lateral impact. The loading conditions range from low velocity - long duration impacts (4 m/s - 50 ms) similar to the automotive domain, to high velocity - short duration impacts (28 m/s - 3 ms) corresponding to cases where the panel deforms under an explosion. The human shoulder response to lateral impact was investigated at bounds of the loading condition spectrum previously mentioned, and also at intermediate conditions (14 m/s - 9 ms) in previous studies. The aim of the current study is to provide additional insight at the intermediate loading conditions which are not found in the literature.Eight pure lateral shoulder impact tests were performed on Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) using an 8.1 kg rigid impactor at velocities ranging from 3.3 m/s to 8.8 m/s with the duration ranging from 25 ms to 35 ms. The PMHS were instrumented with accelerometers…
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Reference PMHS Sled Tests to Assess Submarining of the Small Female

CEESAR-Jérôme Uriot, Pascal Potier, Pascal Baudrit
Faurecia Automotive Seating-Olivier Richard
Published 2018-11-12 by The Stapp Association in United States
In the last decade, extensive efforts have been made to understand the physics of submarining and its consequences in terms of abdominal injuries. For that purpose, 27 Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) tests were performed in well controlled conditions on a sled and response corridors were provided to assess the biofidelity of dummies or human body models. All these efforts were based on the 50th percentile male.In parallel, efforts were initiated to transfer the understanding of submarining and the prediction criteria to the THOR dummies. Both the biofidelity targets and the criteria were scaled down from the 50th percentile male to the 5th percentile THOR female. The objective of this project was to run a set of reference PMHS tests in order to check the biofidelity of the THOR F05 in terms of submarining. Three series of tests were performed on nine PMHS, the first one was designed to avoid submarining, the second and third ones were designed to result in submarining.In the first configuration, no submarining was observed in 3 cases out of 4…
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Reference PMHS Sled Tests to Assess Submarining

CEESAR-Jérôme Uriot, Pascal Potier, Pascal Baudrit
Faurecia Automotive Seating-Olivier Richard
Published 2015-11-09 by The Stapp Association in United States
Sled tests focused on pelvis behavior and submarining can be found in the literature. However, they were performed either with rigid seats or with commercial seats. The objective of this study was to get reference tests to assess the submarining ability of dummies in more realistic conditions than on rigid seat, but still in a repeatable and reproducible setup. For this purpose, a semi-rigid seat was developed, which mimics the behavior of real seats, although it is made of rigid plates and springs that are easy to reproduce and simulate with an FE model. In total, eight PMHS sled tests were performed on this semi-rigid seat to get data in two different configurations: first in a front seat configuration that was designed to prevent submarining, then in a rear seat configuration with adjusted spring stiffness to generate submarining.All subjects sustained extensive rib fractures from the shoulder belt loading. No pelvis fractures and no submarining were observed in the front seat configuration, but two subjects sustained lumbar vertebrae fractures. In the rear seat configuration, all subjects…
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Investigations on the Belt-to-Pelvis Interaction in Case of Submarining

CEESAR (Centre Européen drsquo;Etudes de Sécurité et drsquo;Analyses des Risques) Address correspondence to Jérôme Uriot, CEESAR, 132 Ruedes Suisses, 92000 Nanterre, France. Electronic mail: Jerome.uriot@ceesar.asso.fr-Jérôme Uriot, Pascal Baudrit, Pascal Potier
FAURECIA-Laurent Guérin
Published 2006-11-06 by The Stapp Association in United States
This study focuses on the phenomenon of lap belt slip on the iliac spines of the pelvis, commonly named “submarining ”. The first objective was to compare the interaction between the pelvis and the lap belt for both dummies and Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS). The second objective was to identify parameters influencing the lap belt hooking by the pelvis. For that purpose, a hydraulic test device was developed in order to impose the tension and kinematics of the lap belt such that they mimic what occurs in frontal car crashes. The pelvis was firmly fixed on the frame of this sub-system test-rig, while the belt anchorages were mobile.Fourteen tests on four Post-Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) and fifteen tests on the THOR NT, Hybrid III 50th and Hybrid III 95th percentile dummies were carried out. The belt tension was kept constant while a dynamic rotation was imposed on the belt anchorages.The test results show that, in the tests where submarining occurred, the belt angle relative to the pelvis was systematically greater for the pelves of…
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Measurment of Submarining on Hybrid Iii 50Md & 5Md Percentile Crash Test Dummies

First Technology Safety Systems-Mick Saloum
Institut de Recherches Anatomo-Chirurgicales et de Bioméca-Frédéric Loiseleux
  • Technical Paper
  • 946040
Published 1994-05-23 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
Instrumentation for the study of submarining on the Hybrid II test dummy has already been described in a previous paper. The instrumentation consisted basically of two 2D force transducers installed in the dummy's pelvis. This system has been evaluated, improved and installed on the 50th percentile Hybrid III dummy. The aim of this paper is to describe the general concept arrived at through this study, namely:-Detection of movement of the lap-belt via a simple system installed in the iliac wing of the pelvis.-Measurement of the amplitude of submarining via a 2D force transducer installed back from the iliac crests.This work, carried out in conjunction with FTSS, required changes on the levels of the spinal/lumbar column connection and measurement of thoracic deflection. The assembly was tested in various impact configurations (subsystem and sled configuration tests). The corresponding results show that the system detects submarining well and does not affect the overall response of the instrumented dummy by comparison with a standard dummy.The new system detecting seat-belt slippage was also installed on the 5th percentile Hybrid III…