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Automotive Lubricants and Testing

George E. Totten
RT Vanderbilt Co.-Simon C. Tung
  • Book
  • R-428
Published 2012-10-31 by ASTM in United States
This new book provides a comprehensive overview of various lubrication aspects of a typical powertrain system including the engine, transmission, driveline, chassis, and other components. The manual addresses major issues and current development status of automotive lubricant test methods. Topics also cover advanced lubrication and tribochemistry of the powertrain system, such as diesel fuel lubrication, specialized automotive lubricant testing development, filtration testing of automotive lubricants, lubrication of constant velocity joints, and biodegradable automotive lubricants. Major chapters cover: • Automotive tribology systems • Automotive engine lubricant tests and specifications • Transmission fluids • Gear oils and grease • Automotive bench test simulation and tribological bench tests • Tribological simulation, wear tests, and laboratory characterization • Designing for wear life and frictional performance for automotive applications • Surface analysis and tribochemistry of automotive engine components • Problems and opportunities regarding the lubrication of modern automotive engines • Overview and future trends of automotive lubricants and testing
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A Test Method for Evaluating Material Combinations of Automotive Camshaft and Follower Components Subjected to Lubricated Sliding Simulating Variable Valve Actuation

General Motors Powertrain, U.S.A.-Shekhar G. Wakade, Edward Becker
General Motors Research and Development Center, U.S.A.-Simon C. Tung, Angelo Quintana
Published 2007-07-23 by SAE International in United States
Cam phasing and Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) are used increasingly to alter the opening and closing of the valves to improve fuel economy by most of the automotive engine manufacturers. In instances where the design constraints require use of rolling and sliding follower interfaces with camshaft lobes, several solutions are possible. However, finding an inexpensive solution is challenging. This paper briefly reviews some of the conventional wear test methods that have primarily been used for piston ring cylinder liner wear assessments. Later on a new test method developed using the modified Optimol SRV 4 wear tester is described. This test method was used to assess and rank material combinations for sliding wear assessment of various camshaft lobe and follower components.
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Engine Oil Effects on Friction and Wear Using 2.2L Direct Injection Diesel Engine Components for Bench Testing Part 2: Tribology Bench Test Results and Surface Analyses

General Motors R&D and Planning Center-Simon C. Tung, Michael L. McMillan
Oakland University-Gao Hong
Published 2004-06-08 by SAE International in United States
The effects of lubricating oil on friction and wear were investigated using light-duty 2.2L compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engine components for bench testing. A matrix of test oils varying in viscosity, friction modifier level and chemistry, and base stock chemistry (mineral and synthetic) was investigated.Among all engine oils used for bench tests, the engine oil containing MoDTC friction modifier showed the lowest friction compared with the engine oils with organic friction modifier or the other engine oils without any friction modifier. Mineral-based engine oils of the same viscosity grade and oil formulation had slightly lower friction than synthetic-based engine oils.In the comparison of wear on cylinder bores lubricated with the same viscosity of lubricant, the lubricant containing the MoDTC friction modifier had the lowest wear depth, probably because of a wear-resistant reaction film formed by the reaction of sulfur from ZnDTP (Zinc Dialkyl Dithiophosphate) and MoDTC. The wear depth of the engine oil without any friction modifier was the highest among all lubricants tested. With MoDTC in the engine oil, the wear depths for…
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Engine Oil Effects on the Friction and Emissions of a Light-Duty, 2.2L Direct - Injection - Diesel Engine Part 1 - Engine Test Results

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan-Guntram Lechner, Alexander Knafl, Dennis N. Assanis
General Motors R&D and Planning, Chemical & Environmental Sciences Laboratory-Spyros I. Tseregounis, Michael L. McMillan, Simon C. Tung, Patricia A. Mulawa
Published 2002-10-21 by SAE International in United States
The effects of lubricating oil on friction and engine-out emissions in a light-duty 2.2L compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engine were investigated. A matrix of test oils varying in viscosity (SAE 5W-20 to 10W-40), friction modifier (FM) level and chemistry (MoDTC and organic FM), and basestock chemistry (mineral and synthetic) was investigated. Tests were run in an engine dynamometer according to a simulated, steady state FTP-75 procedure. Low viscosity oils and high levels of organic FM showed benefits in terms of fuel economy, but there were no significant effects observed with the oils with low MoDTC concentration on engine friction run in this program.No significant oil effects were observed on the gaseous emissions of the engine. PM emissions were analyzed for organic solubles and insolubles. The organic soluble fraction was further analyzed for the oil and fuel soluble portions. The oil fraction of the PM emissions was found to account for approximately half of the total PM emissions for the simulated FTP-75 test. Synthetic oils showed lower oil concentrations in the soluble organic fraction (SOF).…
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Assessment of Correlation Between Bench Wear Test Results and Engine Cylinder Wear, Short-Trip Service

General Motors Powertrain-Shirley E. Schwartz, Kevin B. Brogan
General Motors Research and Development and Planning Center-Simon C. Tung
Published 2000-10-16 by SAE International in United States
Bench tests are often less expensive and faster than vehicle tests. However, correlation between bench tests and the engine needs to be proven, otherwise bench tests may be misleading. This investigation explored the relationships between bench wear test results and engine results from short-trip driving tests for a variety of conditions: fresh vs. used oil, different methods for assessing wear, and chemical effects such as oil contamination and differences in the fuel. There was a negative correlation between bench tests with fresh oil compared to vehicle test results with used oil, which suggests that bench wear characteristics of fresh engine oil should not be used to determine engine wear rates under the conditions tested here. Statistical analysis of bench test wear rates with used engine oil, compared to engine wear measurements, indicated that the trends were in an appropriate direction, with some scatter in the results. Visual assessment of bench wear surfaces indicated significant differences between one lubricant and another.
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An Investigation of Tribological Characteristics of Energy-Conserving Engine Oils Using a Reciprocating Bench Test

General Motors Research and Development and Planning Center-Simon C. Tung, Spyros I. Tseregounis
Published 2000-06-19 by SAE International in United States
Engine design and tribology engineers are constantly challenged to develop advanced products with reduced weight, reduced friction, longer life, and higher engine operating temperatures. The resulting engine systems must also meet more demanding emissions and fuel economy targets. Advanced energy-conserving lubricants and surface coatings are concurrently evolving to meet the needs of new engine materials. Because of the enormous cost and time associated with engine testing, much interest is being focused on the development of representative and repeatable bench tests for evaluation of engine materials and lubricants. The authors have developed a bench test employing reciprocating motion for evaluating friction and energy-conserving characteristics of lubricants. The main advantage of this developed bench test is that parts of real components are tested (cylinder liners and piston rings) so that geometry and metallurgy of the engine are preserved and representative surface finishes can be evaluated.Tribological properties of several energy-conserving engine oils were evaluated using a laboratory bench test. Real engine components (3.8L cast iron bore and Mo-coated piston ring segments) have been used in measuring friction under…
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Overview of Techniques for Measuring Friction Using Bench Tests and Fired Engines

ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company-Mike T. Noorman
General Motors Research and Development Center-Simon C. Tung, Spyros I. Tseregounis
Published 2000-06-19 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents an overview of techniques for measuring friction using bench tests and fired engines. The test methods discussed have been developed to provide efficient, yet realistic, assessments of new component designs, materials, and lubricants for in-cylinder and overall engine applications.A Cameron-Plint Friction and Wear Tester was modified to permit ring-in-piston-groove movement by the test specimen, and used to evaluate a number of cylinder bore coatings for friction and wear performance. In a second study, it was used to evaluate the energy conserving characteristics of several engine lubricant formulations. Results were consistent with engine and vehicle testing, and were correlated with measured fuel economy performance.The Instantaneous IMEP Method for measuring in-cylinder frictional forces was extended to higher engine speeds and to modern, low-friction engine designs. A comparison of historical cylinder friction measurements shows reductions of 85% for late model piston /cylinder bore designs. A technique for accurately measuring overall engine friction was developed and used to assess the benefits of friction modifiers with an ability to measure changes in friction less than 1%.
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Advances in Powertrain Tribology 2000

Charles Bovington, Harvey P. Nixon, Simon C. Tung, Fumio Ueda
  • Special Publication (SP)
  • SP-1548
Published 2000-06-19 by SAE International in United States
This book covers a broad range of powertrain tribology research topics organized into the following groupings: engine friction measurements using bench and firing tests engine wear phenomena and powetrain system modeling impact of energy- conserving lubricants and surface coatings on tribology engine oil rheology and powertrain component surface mechanisms
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New Studies in Engine Oil Rheology and Tribology

Simon C. Tung, Jagadish Sorab, Thomas E. Kiovsky
  • Special Publication (SP)
  • SP-1182
Published 1996-05-01 by SAE International in United States
Rheology (the study of fluid flow) and tribology (the study of friction, wear, and lubrication) are distinct fields of research but also highly interrelated disciplines. This book presents an international sampling of current rheology and tribology research being performed in industrial and academic laboratories. Contents include: simulation and observation of transient effects in elastohydrodynamic lubrication; tribological behavior of advanced material pairs of piston-ring/cylinder-liner; engine oil performance requirements and reformulation future gasoline engines and systems; some insights on mechanisms of oil consumption; study on 4-stroke engine oils for motorcycles: engine characteristics and new-specification oils, and steric repulsion of polymethacrylate layers.
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Recent Snapshots and Insights Into Lubricant Tribology

Michael J. Covitch, Jagadish Sorab, Simon C. Tung
  • Special Publication (SP)
  • SP-1116
Published 1995-10-01 by SAE International in United States
Durability-protected, low friction operation of lubricated engine component has become increasingly important in recent years due to diverse forces driven by technology, legislation, and competition. This publication reflects the depth of interest in engine lubrication issues. Contents include: studies on friction characteristics of reciprocating engines; investigation on oxidation stability of engine oils using laboratory scale simulator; wear mechanisms of valve seat and insert in heavy duty diesel engine; computer model of the degradation of VI improvers in engine service and bench tests; effects of aging on frictional properties of fuel efficient engine oils; simultaneous piston ring friction and oil film thickness measurements in a reciprocating test rig; review and evaluation of lubricated wear in simulated valve train contact conditions; mechanism studies with special boundary lubricant chemistry; and more.