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This document provides background information, rationale, and data (both physical testing and computer simulations) used in defining the component test methods and similarity criteria described in SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) 6330. ARP6330 defines multiple test methods used to assess the effect of seat back mounted IFE monitor changes on blunt trauma to the head and post-impact sharp edge generation. The data generated is based on seat and IFE components installed on type A-T (transport airplane) certified aircraft. While not within the scope of ARP6330, generated test data for the possible future development of surrogate target evaluation methods is also included
Aircraft Seat Committee
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides recommendations for: The audit process in general A list of specific areas of attention to be audited Maintaining the test facility in such a manner that it meets audit requirements
EG-1E Gas Turbine Test Facilities and Equipment
Benchmarking is used to discover the design intent measurements for seating compartments in vehicles when these measurements are either unknown or are specified using differing measurement procedures. This document provides the specifications and procedures to establish consistent measurements for benchmarking vehicle seating positions using the H-Point Machine (HPM-II1) described in SAE J4002 and the H-Point Design tool (HPD) described in SAE J4004. The HPM-II is a physical tool used to establish key reference points and measurements in a vehicle (Figure 1). The HPD is a CAD tool that aids in the benchmarking process (see Appendix A and SAE J4004
Human Accom and Design Devices Stds Comm
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes the location of drivers’ eyes inside a vehicle. Elliptical (eyellipse) models in three dimensions are used to represent tangent cutoff percentiles of driver eye locations. Procedures are provided to construct 95th and 99th percentile tangent cutoff eyellipses for a 50/50 gender mix, adult user population. Neck pivot (P) points are defined in Section 6 to establish specific left and right eye points for direct and indirect viewing tasks described in SAE J1050. These P points are defined only for the adjustable seat eyellipses defined in Section 4. This document applies to Class A Vehicles (Passenger Cars, Multipurpose Passenger Vehicles, and Light Trucks) as defined in SAE J1100. It also applies to Class B vehicles (Heavy Trucks), although these eyellipses have not been updated from previous versions of SAE J941. The appendices are provided for information only and are not a requirement of this document
Driver Vision Standards Committee
This Recommended Practice provides procedures for defining the Accelerator Heel Point and the Accommodation Tool Reference Point, a point on the seat H-point travel path which is used for locating various driver workspace accommodation tools in Class B vehicles (heavy trucks and buses). Three accommodation tool reference points are available depending on the percentages of males and females in the expected driver population (50:50, 75:25, and 90:10 to 95:5). These procedures are applicable to both the SAE J826 HPM and the SAE J4002 HPM-II
Truck and Bus Human Factors Committee
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides information and guidance for the selection and use of technologies and methods for lubrication system monitoring of gas turbine aircraft engines. This AIR describes technologies and methods covering oil system performance monitoring, oil debris monitoring, and oil condition monitoring. Both on-aircraft and off-aircraft applications are presented. A higher-level view of lubrication system monitoring as part of an overall engine monitoring system (EMS), is discussed in ARP1587. The scope of this document is limited to those lubrication system monitoring, inspection and analysis methods and devices that can be considered appropriate for health monitoring and routine maintenance. This AIR is intended to be used as a technical guide. It is not intended to be used as a legal document or standard
E-32 Aerospace Propulsion Systems Health Management
For Engine Monitoring Systems to meet their potential for improved safety and reduced operation and support costs, significant attention must be focused on their reliability and validity throughout the life cycle. This AIR will provide program managers, designers, developers and customers a concise reference of the activities, approaches and considerations for the development and verification of a highly reliable engine monitoring system. When applying the guidelines of this AIR it should be noted that engine monitoring systems physically or functionally integrated with the engine control system and/or performing functions that affect engine safety or are used to effect continued operation or return to service decisions shall be subject to the Type Investigation of the product in which they'll be incorporated and have to show compliance with the applicable airworthiness requirements as defined by the responsible Aviation Authority. This is not limited to but includes the application of
E-32 Aerospace Propulsion Systems Health Management
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to provide management, designers, and operators with information to assist them to decide what type of power train monitoring they desire. This document is to provide assistance in optimizing system complexity, performance and cost effectiveness. This document covers all power train elements from the point at which aircraft propulsion energy in a turbine or reciprocating engine is converted via a gear train to mechanical energy for propulsion purposes. The document covers aircraft engine driven transmission and gearbox components, their interfaces, drivetrain shafting, drive shaft hanger bearings, and associated rotating accessories, propellers, and rotor systems as shown in Figure 1. For guidance on monitoring additional engine components not addressed, herein (e.g., main shaft bearings and compressor/turbine rotors), refer to ARP1839. This document addresses rotary and fixed wing applications for rotor, turboprop, turbofan
E-32 Aerospace Propulsion Systems Health Management
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is a general overview of typical airborne engine vibration monitoring (EVM) systems applicable to fixed or rotary wing aircraft applications, with an emphasis on system design considerations. It describes EVM systems currently in use and future trends in EVM development. The broader scope of Health and Usage Monitoring Systems, (HUMS ) is covered in SAE documents AS5391, AS5392, AS5393, AS5394, AS5395, AIR4174
E-32 Aerospace Propulsion Systems Health Management
SAE Aerospace Information Report AIR1871 provides valuable insight into lessons learned in the development, implementation, and operation of various health monitoring systems for propulsion engines and drive train systems. This document provides an overview of the lessons learned for ground-based systems, oil debris monitoring systems, lubrication systems, and Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) for military and commercial programs. For each case study, this document presents a brief technical description, the design requirements, accomplishments, lessons learned, and future recommendations. The lessons learned presented in this document represent a fragment of the knowledge gained through experience when developing and implementing a propulsion health management system. Previous versions of this document contain additional lessons learned during the 1980’s and 1990’s that may be of additional value to the reader. This document will be maintained as technology progresses so that
E-32 Aerospace Propulsion Systems Health Management
The devices of this SAE Standard provide the means by which passenger compartment dimensions can be obtained using a deflected seat rather than a free seat contour as a reference for defining seating space. All definitions and dimensions used in conjunction with this document are described in SAE J1100. These devices are intended only to apply to the driver side or center occupant seating spaces and are not to be construed as instruments which measure or indicate occupant capabilities or comfort. This document covers only one H-point machine installed on a seat during each test. Certified H-point templates and machines can be purchased from: SAE International 400 Commonwealth Drive Warrendale, PA 15096-0001 Specific procedures are included in Appendix A for seat measurements in short- and long-coupled vehicles and in Appendix B for measurement of the driver seat cushion angle. Specifications and a calibration inspection procedure for the H-point machine are given in Appendix C
Human Accom and Design Devices Stds Comm
This SAE Recommended Practice defines a set of measurements and standard procedures for motor vehicle dimensions. The dimensions are primarily intended to measure the design intent of a vehicle within a design environment (i.e., CAD). All dimensions in this practice can be measured this way. In addition, some dimensions can be taken in an actual vehicle. If measurements are taken on physical properties, some differences in values should be expected. Also, care should be taken to not confuse design intent measurements with those taken on a physical property. It is intended that the dimensions and procedures described in this practice be generic in their application to both the HPM, described in SAE J826, and the HPM-II, described in SAE J4002. In some circumstances, the figures may only reflect one or the other. Unless otherwise specified, all dimensions are measured normal to the three-dimensional reference system (see SAE J182), except ground-related dimensions, which are defined
Human Accom and Design Devices Stds Comm
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) defines the test set-up requirements, general analysis procedures, and test report documentation for impact tests where photometric analysis of the high speed film or digital video will be required to obtain target paths (typically the Anthropomorphic Test Dummy (ATD) head path and knee path). Such tests support the requirements of AS8049 - Performance Standard for Seats in Civil Rotorcraft, Transport Aircraft and General Aviation Aircraft. These setup and analysis procedures are applicable to conventional, geometry based, two-dimensional analysis. If a more sophisticated technique that allows cameras to be installed at oblique angles for two or three-dimensional analysis is used, then the specific procedures required by that technique supersede any conflicting procedures contained herein. Some of the requirements that could be superseded include camera placement, optical data channel evaluation, camera to subject measurements, and scaling
Aircraft Seat Committee
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines minimum performance standards and related qualification criteria for add-on child restraint systems (CRS) which provide protection for small children in passenger seats of transport category airplanes. The AS is not intended to provide design criteria that could be met only by an aircraft-specific CRS. The goal of this standard is to achieve child-occupant protection by specifying a dynamic test method and evaluation criteria for the performance of CRS under emergency landing conditions
Aircraft Seat Committee
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines qualification requirements, and minimum documentation requirements for forward and aft facing seats in Advanced Air Mobility aircraft. The goal is to achieve occupant protection under normal operational loads and to define test and evaluation criteria to demonstrate occupant protection when the seat is subjected to statically applied ultimate loads and to dynamic test conditions. While this document addresses system performance, responsibility for the seating system is divided between the seat manufacturer and the installation applicant. The seat manufacturer’s responsibility consists of meeting all the seat system performance requirements. The installation applicant has the ultimate system responsibility in assuring that all requirements for safe seat installation have been met. This AS is dependent on AS8049D and cannot be used without it. This AS provides revisions to the corresponding sections of AS8049D to incorporate new material specific
Aircraft Seat Committee
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) defines means to assess the effect of changes to seat back mounted IFE monitors on blunt trauma to the head and post-impact sharp edges. The assessment methods described may be used for evaluation of changes to seat back monitor delethalization (blunt trauma and post-test sharp edges) and head injury criterion (HIC) attributes (refer to ARP6448 Appendix A Items 3 and 6, respectively). Application is focused on type A-T (transport airplane) certified seat installations
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This document has been prepared and issued to provide information and guidance on the application of AQAP 2110 when the Supplier adheres to the provisions of 9100. This document is published as AQAP 2009 Annex F and 9137. It was jointly developed by NATO and industry representatives for use by NATO and industry to facilitate the use and understanding of the relationship between the AQAP 2110 and 9100
G-14 Americas Aerospace Quality Standards Committee (AAQSC)
This SAE Standard was developed to provide a method for indicating the direction of engine rotation and numbering of engine cylinders. The document is intended for use in designing new engines to eliminate the differences which presently exist in industry
Engine Power Test Code Committee
E-32 Aerospace Propulsion Systems Health Management
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides guidance for the design of flanges on temperature sensors intended for use in gas turbine engines. Three figures detail the configuration of standard size flange mounts with bolt holes, slotted flanges, and miniaturized flanges for small probes
E-32 Aerospace Propulsion Systems Health Management
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) defines the nomenclature of temperature measuring devices. General temperature measurement related terms are defined first, followed by nomenclature specifice to temperature measuring devices, particularly thermocouples
E-32 Aerospace Propulsion Systems Health Management
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to provide information that would be useful to potential users/operators and decision makers for evaluating and quantifying the benefits of an Engine Monitoring Systems (EMS) versus its cost of implementation. This document presents excerpts from reports developed to analyze "actual aircraft cost/benefits results". These are presented as follows: a. First, to outline the benefits and cost elements pertaining to EMS that may be used in performing a cost versus benefits analysis. b. Second, to present considerations for use in conducting the analysis. c. Third, to provide examples of analyses and results as they relate to the user/operator and decision-maker community. The document encompasses helicopters and fixed wing aircraft and distinguishes between civilian and military considerations. This document is not intended to be used as a technical guide, nor is it intended to provide methodologies, be a legal document, or be a
E-32 Aerospace Propulsion Systems Health Management
ARP5120 provides recommended best practices, procedures, and technology to guide the physical and functional design, development, integration, verification, and validation of highly reliable Engine Health Management (EHM) systems for aircraft engines and Auxiliary Power Units (APUs). This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) also serves as a concise reference of considerations, approaches, activities, and requirements for producing the end-to-end engine health management system comprised of both on and off-board subsystems for the sensing, acquisition, analysis, detection, and data handling functions for EHM. These functions may also be used to effect continued operation or return to service decisions when demonstrated as compliant with the applicable airworthiness requirements defined by the responsible Aviation Authority. Where practical, this document delineates between military and commercial practices
E-32 Aerospace Propulsion Systems Health Management
The effectiveness of Engine Life Usage Monitoring and Parts Management systems is largely determined by the aircraft-specific requirements. This document addresses the following areas: safety, life-limiting criteria, life usage algorithm development, data acquisition and management, parts life tracking, design feedback, and cost effectiveness. It primarily examines the requirements and techniques currently in use, and considers the potential impact of new technolog to the following areas: parts classification and control requirements, failure causes of life-limited parts, engine life prediction and usage measurement techniques, method validation, parts life usage data management, lessons learned, and life usage tracking benefits. SAE ARP1587 provides general guidance on the design consideration and objectives of monitoring systems for aircraft gas turbine engines. A major function of these Engine Monitoring Systems is to monitor the usage of life-limited parts in order to maximize
E-32 Aerospace Propulsion Systems Health Management
An effective GSS is vital to the successful implementation of an EMS and is a fundamental part of the total monitoring system design, including asset management. Unlike the on-board part of the EMS which principally uses real time data to indicate when engine maintenance is required, a GSS can offer much greater processing power to comprehensively analyze and manipulate EMS data for both maintenance and logistics purposes. This document reviews the main EMS functions and discusses the operating requirements used to determine the basis design of a GSS, including the interfaces with other maintenance or logistic systems. A brief discussion is also included on some of the more recent advances in GSS technology that have been specifically developed to provide more effective diagnostic capabilities for gas turbine engines
E-32 Aerospace Propulsion Systems Health Management
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is a general overview of typical airborne engine vibration monitoring (EVM) systems applicable to fixed or rotary wing aircraft applications, with an emphasis on system design considerations. It describes EVM systems currently in use and future trends in EVM development. The broader scope of Health and Usage Monitoring Systems, (HUMS) is covered in SAE documents AS5391, AS5392, AS5393, AS5394, AS5395, AIR4174. This ARP also contains the essential elements of AS8054 which remain relevant and which have not been incorporated into Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) specifications
E-32 Aerospace Propulsion Systems Health Management
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) provides guidelines for the functional, performance, qualification and acceptance testing, and documentation requirements for the components of an airborne engine vibration monitoring (EVM) system which is intended for use as a turbojet engine rotor unbalance indicating system, per FAR 25.1305 (D)(3) on transport category airplanes
E-32 Aerospace Propulsion Systems Health Management
This specification covers tungsten in the form of forgings produced from billets processed by isostatically cold pressing, utilizing hydrogen reduced tungsten powder, and high-temperature sintering
AMS G Titanium and Refractory Metals Committee
This specification covers a titanium alloy in the form of bars up through 4.000 inches (101.60 mm) in nominal diameter or least distance between parallel sides, inclusive, forgings of thickness up through 4.000 inches (101.60 mm), inclusive, and stock for forging of any size (see 8.6
AMS G Titanium and Refractory Metals Committee
This specification covers tantalum in the form of sheet, strip, plate, and foil up through 0.1875 inch (4.75 mm), inclusive
AMS G Titanium and Refractory Metals Committee
This specification covers a titanium alloy in the form of forgings, 6.000 inches (152.40 mm) and under in cross-sectional thickness and forging stock of any size
AMS G Titanium and Refractory Metals Committee
This specification covers a titanium alloy in the form of bars up through 6.000 inches (152.40 mm) inclusive, in nominal diameter or least distance between parallel sides, forgings of thickness up through 6.000 inches (152.40 mm), inclusive and stock for forging of any size
AMS G Titanium and Refractory Metals Committee
This specification covers aircraft quality, commercially pure titanium and alpha, alpha-beta and beta titanium alloy rolled or forged bar and reforging stock products
AMS G Titanium and Refractory Metals Committee
This list of terms, with accompanying photomicrographs where appropriate, is intended as a guide for use in the preparation of material specifications
AMS G Titanium and Refractory Metals Committee
This specification covers tungsten in the form of pressed, sintered, and wrought sheet, strip, plate, and foil
AMS G Titanium and Refractory Metals Committee
This specification covers a titanium alloy in the form of sheet and strip up to 0.143 inches (3.63 mm), inclusive, in nominal thickness
AMS G Titanium and Refractory Metals Committee
This specification defines limits of variation for determining acceptability of the composition of cast or wrought titanium and titanium alloy parts and material acquired from a producer
AMS G Titanium and Refractory Metals Committee
This specification covers aluminum-beryllium powders consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) into the form of blocks, blanks or shapes
AMS G Titanium and Refractory Metals Committee
This specification covers one grade of commercially-pure titanium in the form of sheet, strip, and plate up through 1.000 inch (25.40 mm), inclusive
AMS G Titanium and Refractory Metals Committee
This specification covers anethylene propylene (EPM) rubber in the form of molded rings
AMS CE Elastomers Committee
This document outlines the evaluation and documentation appropriate when the components of an approved aircraft seat restraint system are replaced or modified by a party other than the Original Equipment Manufacturer of the restraint system
Aircraft Seat Committee
This document is a guide to the application of magnesium alloys to aircraft interior components including but not limited to aircraft seats. It provides background information on magnesium, its alloys and readily available forms such as extrusions and plate. It also contains guidelines for “enabling technologies” for the application of magnesium to engineering solutions including: machining, joining, forming, cutting, surface treatment, flammability issues, and designing from aluminum to magnesium
Aircraft Seat Committee
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) defines acceptable methods for determining the seat reference point (SRP), and the documentation requirements for that determination, for passenger and crew seats in Transport Aircraft, Civil Rotorcraft, and General Aviation Aircraft
Aircraft Seat Committee
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) defines acceptable methods for determining the effect of disinfectants application to passenger and crew seating products in transport aircraft. This ARP selected a standard application process for all disinfectants in order to remove one variable from the investigation, which, at the time, was more concerned with the unknown effect of disinfectant chemicals on seat materials. The SAE Aircraft Seat Committee noted that most disinfectant manufacturers have their own application regimens to ensure the effectiveness of their product and that these differ from those defined in the ARP. Consequently, the standard application methodology defined in the ARP is not suitable for qualifying disinfectants, but is rather a standard method to compare the disinfectant’s behavior across a range of seat materials. Acceptance of individual disinfectants for specific application regimens is outside the scope of this ARP. The herein described application of
Aircraft Seat Committee
Seat furnishings are installed around seats and are intended to enhance passenger privacy and comfort. They may have provisions for additional occupants to be seated when the aircraft is in-flight, but would not be occupied during taxi, take-off, and landing (TTL). This Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes the minimum design, performance and qualification requirements for seat furnishings with and without upper attachments (see Figures 1 and 2) to be installed in large transport category airplanes. This standard excludes seat furnishing designs that are directly attached to the seat assembly, for which AS8049 is the applicable standard. Integrated items (desk tops, cabinets, shelves, stowage areas, closeouts, dividers, etc.) connected to seat furnishings shall comply with the requirements of this AS as part of the seat furnishings
Aircraft Seat Committee
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) defines a means of assessing the credibility of computer models of aircraft seating systems used to simulate dynamic impact conditions set forth in Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) Parts 23.562, 25.562, 27.562, and 29.562. The ARP is applicable to lumped mass and detailed finite element seat models. This includes specifications and performance criteria for aviation specific virtual anthropomorphic test devices (v-ATDs). This document provides a recommended methodology to evaluate the degree of correlation between a seat model and dynamic impact tests. This ARP also provides best practices for testing and modeling designed to support the implementation of analytical models of aircraft seat systems. Supporting information within this document includes procedures for the quantitative comparison of test and simulation results, as well as test summaries for data generated to support the development of v-ATDs and a sample v-ATD
Aircraft Seat Committee
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) defines additional documentation, environmental considerations, in-service damage limits, test and evaluation criteria necessary to support certification of aircraft seats manufactured using composite materials, in addition to requirements in AS8049 and ARP5526. This document is limited to aircraft seat composite parts in the seat primary load path from the occupant to the attachments of the seat to the aircraft. The term “composite” is inclusive of any fiber-reinforced polymer matrix materials such as carbon fiber-reinforced plastics, sandwich panels and bonded structure
Aircraft Seat Committee
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