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NVH Aspects of Electric Drive Unit Development and Vehicle Integration

FEV Europe GmbH-Christoph Steffens, Peter Janssen
FEV North America, Inc.-Thomas Wellmann, Todd Tousignant, Kiran Govindswamy, Dean Tomazic
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The automotive industry continues to develop new powertrain and vehicle technologies aimed at reducing overall vehicle-level fuel consumption. Specifically, the use of electrified propulsion systems is expected to play an increasingly important role in helping OEM’s meet fleet CO2 reduction targets for 2025 and beyond. This will also include a strong growth in the global demand for electric drive units (EDUs).The change from conventional vehicles to vehicles propelled by EDUs leads to a reduction in overall vehicle exterior and interior noise levels, especially during low-speed vehicle operation. Despite the overall noise levels being low, the NVH behavior of such vehicles can be objectionable due to the presence of tonal noise coming from electric machines and geartrain components as well as relatively high shares of road/wind noise. In order to ensure customer acceptance of electrically propelled vehicles, it is imperative that these NVH challenges are understood and solved.This paper discusses various aspects of the EDU NVH development process. This will include a discussion of the NVH target cascading methodologies for EDUs, followed by a description of…
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Integration of an ORC Waste Heat Recovery with Electrification and Supercharging through Use of a Planetary Gear System for a Class 8 Tractor Application

FEV North America, Inc.-Satyum Joshi, Mufaddel Dahodwala, Erik Koehler, FNU Dhanraj, Michael Franke, Dean Tomazic
Michigan Technological Univ-Jeffrey Naber
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A novel approach to the Integration of Turbocompounding/WHR, Electrification and Supercharging technologies (ITES) to reduce fuel consumption in a medium heavy-duty diesel engine was previously published by FEV. This paper describes a modified approach to ITES to reduce fuel consumption on a heavy-duty diesel engine applied in a Class 8 tractor.The original implementation of the ITES incorporated a turbocompound turbine as the means for waste heat recovery. In this new approach, the turbocompound unit connected to the sun gear of the planetary gear set has been replaced by an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) turbine expander. The secondary compressor and the electric motor-generator are connected to the ring gear and the carrier gear respectively. The ITES unit is equipped with dry clutch and band brake allowing flexibility in mechanical and electrical integration of the ORC expander, secondary compressor and electric motor-generator to the engine. This approach supports electrical integration of ORC expander when the turbine power output is low and mechanical/power-split integration when the turbine power output is high. At low engine speeds and high loads,…
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Analysis of the Impact of Production Lubricant Composition and Fuel Dilution on Stochastic Pre-Ignition in Turbocharged, Direct-Injection Gasoline Engines

FEV North America Inc.-Patrick Haenel, Rob de Bruijn, Dean Tomazic, Henning Kleeberg
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The occurrence of abnormal combustion events leading to high peak pressures and severe knock can be considered to be one of the main challenges for modern turbocharged, direct-injected gasoline engines. These abnormal combustion events have been referred to as Stochastic Pre-Ignition (SPI) or Low-Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI). The events are characterized by an undesired, early start of combustion of the cylinder charge which occurs before or in parallel to the intended flame kernel development from the spark plug. Early SPI events can subsequently lead to violent auto-ignitions that are often referred to as Mega- or Super-Knock. These heavy knock events lead to strong pressure oscillations which can destroy production engines within a few occurrences. SPI occurs mainly at low engine speed and high engine load, thus limiting the engine operating area that is in particular important to achieve good drivability in downsized engines. Recent experimental SPI studies have linked this phenomenon strongly to engine oils.While numerous studies have been published using target blended oils, the presented study focuses on the impact of lubricants with production level…
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Strategies for Meeting Phase 2 GHG and Ultra-Low NOx Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

SAE International Journal of Engines

FEV Inc.-Mufaddel Dahodwala, Satyum Joshi, Erik W. Koehler, Michael Franke, Dean Tomazic
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-1429
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
When considered along with Phase 2 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) requirements, the proposed Air Resource Board (ARB) nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission limit of 0.02 g/bhp-hr will be very challenging to achieve as the trade-off between fuel consumption and NOx emissions is not favorable. To meet any future ultra-low NOx emission regulation, the NOx conversion efficiency during the cold start of the emission test cycles needs to be improved. In such a scenario, apart from changes in aftertreatment layout and formulation, additional heating measures will be required.In this article, a physics-based model for an advanced aftertreatment system comprising of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), an SCR-catalyzed diesel particulate filter (SDPF), a stand-alone selective catalytic reduction (SCR), and an ammonia slip catalyst (ASC) was calibrated against experimental data. The calibrated model was then used to evaluate various advanced aftertreatment system configurations that included the application of an electrically heated catalyst, mini-burner, fuel dosing, passive NOx adsorber (PNA), and ammonia injection. The advanced aftertreatment system capable of meeting the 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOx emission limit with minimum fuel consumption penalty…
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Reduction of Parasitic Losses in Front-End Accessory Drive Systems: Part 2

SAE International Journal of Engines

FEV Group GmbH-Stefan Trampert
FEV North America Inc.-Marek Tatur, Dean Tomazic, Kiran Govindswamy
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0326
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Demanding CO2 and fuel economy regulations are continuing to pressure the automotive industry into considering innovative powertrain and vehicle-level solutions. Powertrain engineers continue to minimize engine internal friction and transmission parasitic losses with the aim of reducing overall vehicle fuel consumption.In Part 1 of the study (2017-01-0893) described aspects of the test stand design that provides flexibility for adaptation to various test scenarios. The results from measurements for a number of front-end accessory drive (FEAD) components were shown in the context of scatterbands derived from multiple component tests. Key results from direct drive and belt-driven component tests were compared to illustrate the influence of the belt layout on mechanical efficiency of the FEAD system.The second part of the series will focus exclusively on the operation of the alternator. Two main elements of the study are discussed. The first part explores tests performed to evaluate the main design aspects of the component. Different belt designs, routing, and tension levels were tested and compared. A resulting matrix allows to determine an optimized belt design and layout for…
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In-Use Compliance Opportunity for Diesel Powertrains

FEV Europe GmbH-Marcel Romijn
FEV GmbH-Korfer Thomas
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
In-use compliance under LEV III emission standards, GHG, and fuel economy targets beyond 2025 poses a great opportunity for all ICE-based propulsion systems, especially for light-duty diesel powertrain and aftertreatment enhancement. Though diesel powertrains feature excellent fuel-efficiency, robust and complete emissions controls covering any possible operational profiles and duty cycles has always been a challenge. Significant dependency on aftertreatment calibration and configuration has become a norm. With the onset of hybridization and downsizing, small steps of improvement in system stability have shown a promising avenue for enhancing fuel economy while continuously improving emissions robustness. In this paper, a study of current key technologies and associated emissions robustness will be discussed followed by engine and aftertreatment performance target derivations for LEV III compliant powertrains. The core of the discussion will be focused on identifying opportunities in engine and aftertreatment hardware and controls to position the diesel applications appropriately for future in-use compliance. Additionally, the authors will discuss the potential diesel powertrain hardware enhancements that could deliver improved emissions robustness while saving fuel, in real-world operation. Since…
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Novel Approach to Integration of Turbocompounding, Electrification and Supercharging Through Use of Planetary Gear System

FEV NA, Inc.-Satyum Joshi, Mufaddel Dahodwala, Erik W. Koehler, Michael Franke, Dean Tomazic
Michigan Technological University-Jeffrey Naber
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Technologies that provide potential for significant improvements in engine efficiency include, engine downsizing/downspeeding (enabled by advanced boosting systems such as an electrically driven compressor), waste heat recovery through turbocompounding or organic Rankine cycle and 48 V mild hybridization. FEV’s Integrated Turbocompounding/Waste Heat Recovery (WHR), Electrification and Supercharging (FEV-ITES) is a novel approach for integration of these technologies in a single unit. This approach provides a reduced cost, reduced space claim and an increase in engine efficiency, when compared to the independent integration of each of these technologies.This approach is enabled through the application of a planetary gear system. Specifically, a secondary compressor is connected to the ring gear, a turbocompounding turbine or organic Rankine cycle (ORC) expander is connected to the sun gear, and an electric motor/generator is connected to the carrier gear. The planetary gear system is equipped with a dry clutch and a band brake allowing flexibility in mechanical and electrical integration of the turbocompound turbine, secondary compressor and electric motor/generator to the engine. The system provides the ability to do electrical integration of…
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Impact of the Future Fuel Economy Targets on Powertrain, Driveline and Vehicle NVH Development

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

FEV North America, Inc.-Thomas Wellmann, Kiran Govindswamy, Dean Tomazic
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-1777
Published 2017-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The automotive industry continues to develop new technologies aimed at reducing overall vehicle level fuel consumption. Powertrain and driveline related technologies will play a key role in helping OEM’s meet fleet CO2 reduction targets for 2025 and beyond. Specifically, use of technologies such as downsized engines, idle start-stop systems, aggressive torque converter lock-up schedules, wide-ratio spread transmissions, and electrified propulsion systems are vital towards meeting aggressive fuel economy targets. Judicious combinations of such powertrain and driveline technology packages in conjunction with measures such as the use of low rolling resistance tires and vehicle lightweighting will be required to meet future OEM fleet CO2 targets. Many of the technologies needed for meeting the fuel economy and CO2 targets come with unique NVH challenges. In order to ensure customer acceptance of new vehicles, it is imperative that these NVH challenges be understood and solved.This paper will begin with an introduction of the legislative framework with respect to fuel economy and CO2 targets for light duty vehicles. Key megatrends of engine, transmission, driveline, and electrified propulsion systems will…
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Optimization of Electric Vehicle Exterior Noise for Pedestrian Safety and Sound Quality

FEV Europe GmbH-Georg Eisele, Christoph Steffens
FEV North America, Inc-Kiran Govindswamy
Published 2017-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The automotive industry continues to develop new powertrain and vehicle technologies aimed at reducing overall vehicle-level fuel consumption. Specifically, the use of electrified propulsion systems is expected to play an increasingly important role in helping OEM’s meet fleet CO2 reduction targets for 2025 and beyond. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles do not typically utilize IC engines for low-speed operation. Under these low-speed operating conditions, the vehicles are much quieter than conventional IC engine-powered vehicles, making their approach difficult to detect by pedestrians. To mitigate this safety concern, many manufacturers have synthesized noise (using exterior speakers) to increase detection distance. Further, the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has provided recommendations pursuant to the Pedestrian Safety Enhancement Act (PSEA) of 2010 for such exterior noise signatures to ensure detectability. This has created potential challenges for automakers to meet the anticipated regulatory requirements while maintaining a high level of sound quality for both exterior and interior noise.In development of exterior noise signals, the goal is to achieve the required levels and transient pitch requirements, while ensuring…
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Meeting 2025 CAFE Standards for LDT with Fuel-Efficient Diesel Powertrains - Approaches and Solutions

FEV GmbH-Werner Bick, Christoph Menne
FEV Group Holding GmbH-Thomas Koerfer
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
In view of changing climatic conditions all over the world, Green House Gas (GHG) saving related initiatives such as reducing the CO2 emissions from the mobility and transportation sectors have gained in importance. Therefore, with respect to the large U.S. market, the corresponding legal authorities have defined aggressive and challenging targets for the upcoming time frame. Due to several aspects and conditions, like hesitantly acting clients regarding electrically powered vehicles or low prices for fossil fuels, convincing and attractive products have to be developed to merge legal requirements with market constraints. This is especially valid for the market segment of Light-Duty vehicles, like SUV’S and Pick-Up trucks, which are in high demand. The modern DI Diesel engine has gained an increasing market share in the recent 25 years in the European market and has converted from a niche application to an established, highly appreciated propulsion system in the Light-Duty vehicle segment, covering passenger car as well as light commercial applications. In vehicle classes with high market penetration this low CO2 concept offers a substantial contribution…
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