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Characterization of GDI PM during Vehicle Start-Stop Operation

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-John M. Storey, Melanie Moses-DeBusk, Shean Huff, John Thomas, Mary Eibl, Faustine Li
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
As the fuel economy regulations increase in stringency, many manufacturers are implementing start-stop operation to enhance vehicle fuel economy. During start-stop operation, the engine shuts off when the vehicle is stationary for more than a few seconds. When the brake is released by the driver, the engine restarts. Depending on traffic conditions, start-stop operation can result in fuel savings from a few percent to close to 10%. Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are also increasingly available on light-duty vehicles. While GDI engines offer fuel economy advantages over port fuel injected (PFI) engines, they also tend to have higher PM emissions, particularly during start-up transients. Thus, there is interest in evaluating the effect of start-stop operation on PM emissions. In this study, a 2.5L GDI vehicle was operated over the FTP75 drive cycle. Runs containing cold starts (FTP-75 cycle Phases 1 & 2) and multiple runs containing hot starts (FTP-75 cycle Phases 3 & 4) were performed each day. Note that the FTP-75 Phases 3 & 4 are identical to Phases 1 & 2 except that…
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Development of a Cold Start Fuel Penalty Metric for Evaluating the Impact of Fuel Composition Changes on SI Engine Emissions Control

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Josh Pihl, John Thomas, Sreshtha Sinha Majumdar, Shean Huff, Brian West, Todd Toops
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The U.S. Department of Energy’s Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines initiative (Co-Optima) aims to simultaneously transform both transportation fuels and engines to maximize performance and energy efficiency. Researchers from across the DOE national laboratories are working within Co-Optima to develop merit functions for evaluating the impact of fuel formulations on the performance of advanced engines. The merit functions relate overall engine efficiency to specific measurable fuel properties and will serve as key tools in the fuel/engine co-optimization process. This work focused on developing a term for the Co-Optima light-duty boosted spark ignition (SI) engine merit function that captures the effects of fuel composition on emissions control system performance. For stoichiometric light-duty SI engines, the majority of NOx, NMOG, and CO emissions occur during cold start, before the three-way catalyst (TWC) has reached its “light-off” temperature. This light-off temperature depends on the exhaust composition, which changes with fuel formulation. Thus, the time to achieve light-off, and therefore the cold start emissions, depends on fuel composition. Since the time to reach light-off must be minimized to meet…
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Performance of a Half-Heusler Thermoelectric Generator for Automotive Application

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-James Szybist, John Thomas, Brian C. Kaul
University of Tennessee-Steven Davis
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) have been researched and developed for harvesting energy from otherwise wasted heat. For automotive applications this will most likely involve using internal combustion engine exhaust as the heat source, with the TEG positioned after the catalyst system. Applications to exhaust gas recirculation systems and compressed air coolers have also been suggested. A thermoelectric generator based on half-Heusler thermoelectric materials was developed, engineered, and fabricated, targeting a gasoline passenger sedan application. This generator was installed on a gasoline engine exhaust system in a dynamometer cell, and positioned immediately downstream of the close-coupled three-way catalyst. The generator was characterized using a matrix of steady-state conditions representing the important portions of the engine map. Detailed performance results are presented. Measurements indicate the generator can produces over 300 W of power with 900 °C exhaust at relatively high flow rates, but less than 50 W when the exhaust is 600 °C and at lower flow rates. The latter condition is typical of standard test cycles and most driving scenarios.
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Fuel Consumption Sensitivity of Conventional and Hybrid Electric Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles to Driving Style

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-John Thomas, Shean Huff, Brian West, Paul Chambon
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-9379
Published 2017-08-11 by SAE International in United States
Aggressive driving is an important topic for many reasons, one of which is higher energy used per unit distance traveled, potentially accompanied by an elevated production of greenhouse gases and other pollutants. Examining a large data set of self-reported fuel economy (FE) values revealed that the dispersion of FE values is quite large and is larger for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) than for conventional gasoline vehicles. This occurred despite the fact that the city and highway FE ratings for HEVs are generally much closer in value than for conventional gasoline vehicles. A study was undertaken to better understand this and better quantify the effects of aggressive driving, including reviewing past aggressive driving studies, developing and exercising a new vehicle energy model, and conducting a related experimental investigation. The vehicle energy model focused on the limitations of regenerative braking in combination with varying levels of driving-style aggressiveness to show that this could account for greater FE variation in an HEV compared to a similar conventional vehicle. A closely matched pair of gasoline-fueled sedans, one an HEV…
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Decomposing Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Regulatory Standards in the Energy Conversion Efficiency and Tractive Energy Domain

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Novation Analytics-Gregory Pannone, Brian Betz, Michael Reale
Oak Ridge National Laboratory-John Thomas
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0897
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The three foundational elements that determine mobile source energy use and tailpipe carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are the tractive energy requirements of the vehicle, the energy conversion efficiency of the propulsion system, and the energy source. The tractive energy requirements are determined by the vehicle's mass, aerodynamic drag, tire rolling resistance, and parasitic drag. The energy conversion efficiency of the propulsion system is dictated by the tractive efficiency, non-tractive energy use, kinetic energy recovery, and parasitic losses. The energy source determines the mobile source CO2 emissions. For current vehicles, tractive energy requirements and overall energy conversion efficiency are readily available from the decomposition of test data. For future applications, plausible levels of mass reduction, aerodynamic drag improvements, and tire rolling resistance can be transposed into the tractive energy domain. Similarly, by combining thermodynamic, mechanical efficiency, and kinetic energy recovery fundamentals with logical proxies, achievable levels of energy conversion efficiency can be established to allow for the evaluation of future powertrain requirements. Combining the plausible levels of tractive energy and efficiency provides a means to compute…
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Vehicle Efficiency and Tractive Work: Rate of Change for the Past Decade and Accelerated Progress Required for U.S. Fuel Economy and CO2 Regulations

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-John Thomas
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0909
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
A major driving force for change in light-duty vehicle design and technology is the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) joint final rules concerning Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for model years 2017 (MY17) through 2025 (MY25) passenger cars and light trucks. The chief goal of this current study is to compare the already rapid pace of fuel economy improvement and technological change over the previous decade to the required rate of change to meet regulations over the next decade. EPA and NHTSA comparisons of the model year 2005 (MY05) US light-duty vehicle fleet to the model year 2015 (MY15) fleet shows improved fuel economy (FE) of approximately 26% using the same FE estimating method mandated for CAFE regulations. Future predictions by EPA and NHTSA concerning ensemble fleet fuel economy are examined as an indicator of required vehicle rate-of-change. A set of 40 same-model vehicle pairs for MY05 and MY15 is compared to examine changes in energy use and related technological change over…
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Integration of Multiple Active Safety Systems using STPA

MIT-Seth Placke, John Thomas, Dajiang Suo
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Automobiles are becoming ever more complex as advanced safety features are integrated into the vehicle platform. As the pace of integration and complexity of new features rises, it is becoming increasingly difficult for system engineers to assess the impact of new additions on vehicle safety and performance. In response to this challenge, a new approach for analyzing multiple control systems as an extension to the Systems Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) framework has been developed. The new approach meets the growing need of system engineers to analyze integrated control systems, that may or may not have been developed in a coordinated manner, and assess them for safety and performance.The new approach identifies unsafe combinations of control actions, from one or more control systems, that could lead to an accident. For example, independent controllers for Auto Hold, Engine Idle Stop, and Adaptive Cruise Control may interfere with each other in certain situations. This paper demonstrates a method to efficiently identify potential unsafe scenarios without requiring a complete enumeration or individual analysis of all possible scenarios. As a…
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An Integrated Approach to Requirements Development and Hazard Analysis

General Motors Company-Mark Vernacchia, Padma Sundaram
Massachusetts Institute of Technology-John Thomas, John Sgueglia, Dajiang Suo, Nancy Leveson
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The introduction of new safety critical features using software-intensive systems presents a growing challenge to hazard analysis and requirements development. These systems are rich in feature content and can interact with other vehicle systems in complex ways, making the early development of proper requirements critical. Catching potential problems as early as possible is essential because the cost increases exponentially the longer problems remain undetected. However, in practice these problems are often subtle and can remain undetected until integration, testing, production, or even later, when the cost of fixing them is the highest.In this paper, a new technique is demonstrated to perform a hazard analysis in parallel with system and requirements development. The proposed model-based technique begins during early development when design uncertainty is highest and is refined iteratively as development progresses to drive the requirements and necessary design features. The technique is evaluated by applying it to a realistic but generic Shift-By-Wire design concept in two iterations with varying levels of detail. In addition, as the requirements and design evolve and change over time, the…
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Drive Cycle Powertrain Efficiencies and Trends Derived from EPA Vehicle Dynamometer Results

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-John Thomas
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2562
Published 2014-10-13 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle manufacturers among others are putting great emphasis on improving fuel economy (FE) of light-duty vehicles in the U.S. market, with significant FE gains being realized in recent years. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) data indicates that the aggregate FE of vehicles produced for the U.S. market has improved by over 20% from model year (MY) 2005 to 2013. This steep climb in FE includes changes in vehicle choice, improvements in engine and transmission technology, and reducing aerodynamic drag, rolling resistance, and parasitic losses. The powertrain related improvements focus on optimizing in-use efficiency of the transmission and engine as a system, and may make use of what is termed downsizing and/or downspeeding. This study quantifies recent improvements in powertrain efficiency, viewed separately from other vehicle alterations and attributes (noting that most vehicle changes are not completely independent). A methodology is outlined to estimate powertrain efficiency for the U.S city and highway cycle tests using data from the EPA vehicle database. Comparisons of common conventional gasoline powertrains for similar MY 2005 and 2013 vehicles are…
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Experimental Evaluation of a 4-cc Glow-Ignition Single-Cylinder Two-Stroke Engine

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Michael D. Kass, Mark W. Noakes, Brian Kaul, Dean Edwards, Timothy Theiss, Lonnie Love, Ryan Dehoff, John Thomas
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
The performance of a 4cc two-stroke single cylinder glow plug engine was assessed at wide open throttle for speeds ranging from 2000 to 7000RPM. The engine performance was mapped for the stock aluminum head and one composed of titanium, which was printed using additive manufacturing. The engine was mounted to a motoring dynamometer and the maximum torque was determined by adjusting the fuel flow. Maximum torque occurred around 3000 to 3500RPM and tended to be higher when using the aluminum head. At slower speeds, the titanium head produced slightly higher torque. For each test condition, maximum torque occurred at leaner conditions for the titanium head compared to the stock aluminum one. Higher efficiencies were observed with the aluminum head for speeds greater than 3000RPM, but the titanium heads provided better efficiency at the lower speed points.The titanium head was equipped with an in-cylinder pressure sensor and the combustion performance was assessed at maximum torque for speeds of 4000, 6000, and 7000RPM. The peak cylinder pressure increased with decreasing speed, while the indicated mean effective pressure…
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