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This SAE Standard specifies requirements and design guidelines for electrical wiring systems of less than 50 V and cable diameters from 0.35 to 19 mm2 used on off-road, self-propelled earthmoving machines as defined in SAE J1116 and agricultural tractors as defined in ASAE S390
CTTC C2, Electrical Components and Systems
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) standardizes test equipment and procedures for the measurement of smoke emission from aircraft gas turbine engines. The procedures included are for determining and reporting the amount of smoke emission. Tests have indicated that the practically achievable precision of the smoke number is within ±3 when the system is properly used as outlined herein. This procedure is not intended for in-flight testing, nor does it apply to engines operating in the afterburning mode
E-31G Gaseous Committee
This ARP outlines recommended practices to quantify the concentrations of a subset of bleed air contaminant marker compounds on an aircraft propulsion engine or APU prior to delivery and installation on civil and military aircraft. Testing is specified during steady state (non-transient) operation only, in a ground level test bed. Included are recommended test setup, test procedures, techniques for sampling ambient air and bleed air, and one or more specific analytical methodologies for each of the suggested bleed air contaminant marker compounds at quantification levels, given practical constraints
E-31B Bleed Air Committee
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is a historical technical record describing procedures, required continuous sampling conditions, and instrumentation for the measurement of non-volatile particle number and mass concentrations from the exhaust of aircraft gas turbine engines. Procedures are included to calculate sampling loss performance. This AIR is not intended for in-flight testing, nor does it apply to engine operating in the afterburning mode. This Aerospace Information Report is a historical technical record of the initial document detailing the measurement of non-volatile particle emissions at the exit plane of aircraft gas turbine engines. This methodology was adopted by ICAO into Annex 16 Vol II and updated into Aerospace Recommended Practice ARP6320. Future updates of this document may include explanations of the reasoning and assumptions used to develop this measurement methodology
E-31P Particulate Matter Committee
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) describes the continuous sampling and analysis of gaseous emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines. The measured gas species include carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), hydrocarbons (HC), and water vapor (H2O). This ARP excludes engine operating procedures and test modes, and is not intended for in-flight testing, nor does it apply to engines operating in the afterburning mode. It is recognized that there will probably be major advances in the gas analysis measurement technology. It is not the intent of this ARP to exclude other analysis techniques, but to form the basis of the minimum amount of conventional instruments (those in common industry usage over the last fifteen years) required for the analysis of aircraft engine exhaust. It is the responsibility of the analyst to demonstrate the alternative measurement technology has comparable (or better) performance than the techniques
E-31G Gaseous Committee
This document summarizes published measurement data and reference values for marker chemical compounds listed in ARP4418 (see 2.1.1) potentially found in aircraft engine bleed air
E-31B Bleed Air Committee
This ARP describes recommended sampling conditions, instrumentation, and procedures for the measurement of nonvolatile particle number and mass concentrations from the exhaust of aircraft gas turbine engines. Procedures are included to estimate sampling system loss performance. This ARP is not intended for in-flight testing, nor does it apply to engines operating in the afterburning mode. This ARP is intended as a guide toward standard practice and is subject to change to keep pace with experience and technical advances
E-31P Particulate Matter Committee
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) details the recommended process for correcting measured non-volatile Particulate Matter (nvPM) mass and number data for particle losses in the sampling and measurement system specified in ARP6320. This technique is only recommended for conditions where both nvPM mass and number concentration measurements are in the valid measurement ranges of the instruments which are discussed in the tool limitations section. This ARP also supplies an Excel® software tool with documentation to automate the process. The body of the ARP details the recommended calculation method, uncertainties and limitations of the system loss correction factors. It explains, in detail, the required inputs and outputs from the supplied Excel® software tool (developed on Windows 7, Excel® 2016). Also included are: The Excel® correction tools (Attachments I and V). Installation instructions for a Windows based computer (Attachment II). A user technical manual (Attachment III
E-31P Particulate Matter Committee
This report provides current practice measurement methods for quantifying nonvolatile particle matter at the exit plane of aircraft gas turbine engines. This document contains detailed information for many instruments and techniques, described in AIR5892A, that have been applied in aircraft engine field tests since AIR5892A was first issued in April 2003. There are four sections, identified as Technical Appendices (TA), presenting measurement techniques, sampling, and quantification of nonvolatile particles. The sections are written in the format of Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) documents and intended to progress to recommended practices upon overcoming existing technical challenges. Many important technical advances have been accomplished that comprise the Aircraft Engine Exhaust Nonvolatile Particle Matter Measurement Method Development techniques described in TA A: Particle Mass,TA B: particle Number and Size,TA C: Particle Sampling, and TA D: Calculation of Particle Number
E-31P Particulate Matter Committee
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) describes a method for assessing size dependent particle losses in a sampling and measurement system of specified geometry utilizing the non-volatile PM (nvPM) mass and number concentrations measured at the end of the sampling system.1 The penetration functions of the sampling and measurement system may be determined either by measurement or by analytic computational methods. Loss mechanisms including thermophoretic (which has a very weak size dependence) and size dependent losses are considered in this method2 along with the uncertainties due to both measurement error and the assumptions of the method. The results of this system loss assessment allow development of estimated correction factors for nvPM mass and number concentrations to account for the system losses facilitating estimation of the nvPM mass and number at the engine exhaust nozzle exit plane. As the particle losses are size dependent, the magnitude of correction factors can
E-31P Particulate Matter Committee
This document lists those guidelines recognized as being essential for consideration by the designer who is preparing to select an elastomer as part of an aerospace design
AMS CE Elastomers Committee
This test method provides performance data on candidate insulation systems as a function of time and temperature. These data give engineering information on the wire insulation candidate relative to the performance of materials already in use with a backlog of experience. These tests expose candidate insulation systems to a wide range of temperatures for short and long periods of time, while measuring the degradation of its physical properties. For aerospace use, end-point proof tests include mandrel bend, water soak, and dielectric integrity
AE-8D Wire and Cable Committee
The primary function of this specification is to cover the general requirements of one-, two-, and three-phase (often referred to as poles) trip-free circuit breakers for use in aircraft electric systems conforming to MIL-STD-704. As a secondary function, this specification may possibly cover the general requirements of one-, two- and three-phase circuit breakers for use in primary vehicles, other than aircraft, when mounted directly to the structure
AE-7P Protective and Control Devices
Current design and development practices leading to formal liquid rocket engine qualification (USAF) or certification (NASA) will not achieve the specific reliability objectives of future programs. New rocket engine programs are dictating quantified requirements for high reliability in parallel with a cost-constrained procurement environment. These specified reliability levels cannot be validated with the necessary confidence in a timely or cost-effective manner by present methods. Therefore, a new improved process is needed and has been developed. This new reliability certification methodology will be discussed in detail in the five sections that comprise this document. Primary purposes of this report are to: a Define and illustrate this process b Point out its strengths and weaknesses c Provide guidelines for its application on programs which have specified reliability requirements Increased emphasis on rocket engine reliability and cost has prompted the Liquid Rocket Certification
G-11 Probabilistic Methods and Uncertainty Quantification
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) addresses legal issues concerning use of non-deterministic methods in the design and/or analysis of systems. The investigation includes an assessment of legal precedent for use of these methods both in the aerospace industry and in other non-aerospace engineering contexts. The investigation is primarily, but not exclusively, focused on United States of America Federal and State Law. This document is not intended to be used in any way as a “legal justification” for the use of Probabilistic Methods - it is simply a compilation of experience and past precedent. Many engineers note that the use of Probabilistic Methods for failure risk assessment implies an acceptance that any design will have a finite, albeit small, risk of loss of function, and express concern that this could be seized upon in a Court of Law to indicate that the design was “unsafe”. This report helps to allay some of these fears by presenting the logic used in past legal
G-11 Probabilistic Methods and Uncertainty Quantification
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) addresses the following: 1 Captures previous experience and lessons learned in the application of PM. 2 Tabulates public-domain applications, and several representative examples discussed in detail. 3 Notes relative merits and barriers to implementation. The document does not contain technical details of probabilistic methods, benchmarking of specific approaches or legal aspects. These subjects are covered in other AIRs, referenced in Section 2 and prepared by the Probabilistic Methods Committee of the G-11 Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability and Logistics (RMSL) Division of SAE
G-11 Probabilistic Methods and Uncertainty Quantification
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) is intended to apply to those oxygen regulators which supply gaseous oxygen at breathing pressures to meet physiological requirements of aircraft flight crew members. It defines the minimum performance requirements and testing for aircraft demand type breathing oxygen regulators
A-10 Aircraft Oxygen Equipment Committee
This document defines the minimum degree of purity and maximum levels of certain deleterious impurities allowable for aviator's breathing oxygen at the point of manufacture or generation. It covers gaseous, liquid, and chemically generated oxygen, and oxygen supplied by in situ concentration and in situ electrolysis. Different limits are established for oxygen from different sources, in recognition of differences in the ways the oxygen is stored, dispensed, and utilized, taking into account the safety of the user. These limits are not intended to specifically reflect upon the relative capabilities or merits of various technologies. Procurement documents may specify more stringent limits, where required for specific applications. Medical oxygen is not covered by this standard. In the United States, medical oxygen is a prescription drug and complies with the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP). In Europe, medical oxygen specification compiles with the European Pharmacopoeia monograph (Ph
A-10 Aircraft Oxygen Equipment Committee
This Aerospace Information Report provides general information to aircraft designers and engineers, regarding LOX, its properties, its storage and its conversion to gas. Much useful information is included herein for aircraft designers regarding important design considerations for a safe and effective installation to an aircraft. The associated ground support equipment needed to support operations of LOX equipped aircraft is also discussed. It is important to realize that LOX equipped aircraft cannot be supported unless this support infrastructure is also available. A significant part of this document will address the specific advantages, disadvantages and precautions relating to LOX systems. These are important issues that must be considered in deciding which oxygen system to install to the aircraft. Also, many commercial and military aircraft use aeromedical LOX equipment that is mostly portable equipment. Aeromedical LOX equipment is not addressed herein as it is beyond the scope of
A-10 Aircraft Oxygen Equipment Committee
The primary purpose of vehicle forward lighting is not to see the world but to see the road! In their simplest form, headlights help drivers negotiate a safe path on the road. They do this by lighting the roadway according to (a multitude of) specific standards. For decades, discussions concerning the niceties of illuminating potential obstacles in the roadway were little more than an academic pursuit as there simply were not sufficient lumens available from filament light sources to achieve all of the desired tasks no matter how worthy they might be. Not unexpectedly, the technology has evolved with the introduction of high output metal-halide sources, multi-task standards combined with multilevel lighting devices and discrete LED sources offering high luminous efficiencies and the means to deliver the light where it can be most useful. The question now becomes one of determining where the available light should be directed. Every standard advisory group, industry, manufacturer and
Road Illumination Devices Standards Committee
The purposeful integration of existing and emerging technologies into CM practice will enable collaboration with supporting systems and provide stakeholders access to authoritative and trusted data in a timely fashion at their desktop to help drive educated decision making. This lays to rest the misguided myth that CM and supporting systems operate at cross-purposes. What does it mean to have CM in a world of new initiatives and 2-week sprints (i.e., time-boxed work periods), multiple increments producing Minimum Viable Products (MVP) and synchronized with Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) while being digitally transformed? MBSE initiatives drive the jump from “2D” data to “3D” data, thereby becoming a Model-Centric practice. Products now enable technology to push the product lifecycle management process to new levels of efficiency and confidence. This mindset is evidenced by five major functions of CM, as discussed below, and described in EIA-649C
G-33 Configuration Management
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) identifies the risks and dangers associated with the carriage and use of pyrotechnic signaling devices in transport category aircraft life rafts and slide/rafts, and provides a rationale for allowing the use of alternative non-pyrotechnic devices authorized by FAA/TSO-C168. These devices offer an equivalent level of safety while eliminating flight safety risks, enhancing survivability of aircraft ditching survivors, reducing costs, eliminating dangerous goods transportation and handling issues, and reducing environmental impact of dangerous goods disposal
S-9A Safety Equipment and Survival Systems Committee
This document covers minimum performance standards for protective equipment used on the flight deck during rapid decompression (5 to 30 seconds) up to a maximum pressure altitude of 45000 feet. Equipment with the capability to adequately protect flight deck crew from hypoxia up to FL450 is anticipated to provide sufficient protection at lower altitudes
A-10 Aircraft Oxygen Equipment Committee
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) applies to landing gear structures and mechanisms (excluding wheels, tires, and brakes and other landing gear systems) for all types and models of civil and military aircraft. All axles, wheel forks, links, arms, mechanical and gas/oil shock struts, downlock and uplock assemblies, braces, trunnion beams, and truck beams, etc., that sustain loads originating at the ground, and that are not integral parts of the airframe structure, should be designed and validated in accordance with this document. Hydraulic actuators (retraction, main and nose gear steering, positioning, damping, etc.) should also be included in this coverage. System level, non-structural components such as retraction/extension valves, controllers, secondary structure and mechanisms in the airframe (e.g., manual release mechanisms, slaved doors) as well as equipment that is located in the cockpit are not addressed in this ARP
A-5B Gears, Struts and Couplings Committee
This standard only defines interconnect, electrical and logical (functional) requirements for the interface between a Micro Munition and the Host. The physical and mechanical interface between the Micro Munition and Host is undefined. Individual programs will define the relevant requirements for physical and mechanical interfaces in the Interface Control Document (ICD) or system specifications. It is acknowledged that this does not guarantee full interoperability of Interface for Micro Munitions (IMM) interfaces until further standardization is achieved
AS-1B Aircraft Store Integration Committee
This specification covers environment-resisting, quick disconnect, EMI/RFI shielded and non-shielded umbilical, electric connectors and adapter assemblies with removable crimp or nonremovable solder-type contacts and accessories. Connectors are rated for operation from -55 °C (-67 °F) to 200 °C (392 °F). Adapter assemblies are rated for operation from -55 °C (-67 °F) to 125 °C (257 °F). The upper temperature is the maximum internal hot spot temperature resulting from any combination of electrical load and ambient temperature
AE-8C1 Connectors Committee
The vehicle dynamics terminology presented herein pertains to passenger cars and light trucks with two axles and to those vehicles pulling single-axle trailers. The terminology presents symbols and definitions covering the following subjects: axis systems, vehicle bodies, suspension and steering systems, brakes, tires and wheels, operating states and modes, control and disturbance inputs, vehicle responses, and vehicle characterizing descriptors. The scope does not include terms relating to the human perception of vehicle response
Vehicle Dynamics Standards Committee
This SAE Standard specifies a procedure for approximating the volume of typical materials contained in the bowl of Open Bowl scrapers as defined in SAE J728 and SAE J1057. The volumes are based on the inside dimensions of the bowl and representative volumes on top of the bowl. This rating method is intended to provide a consistent means of comparing capacities; it is not intended to define actual capacities that might be observed in any specific application
MTC1, Earthmoving Machinery
This document provides preliminary1 safety-relevant guidance for in-vehicle fallback test driver training and for on-road testing of vehicles being operated by prototype conditional, high, and full (Levels 3 to 5) ADS, as defined by SAE J3016. It does not include guidance for evaluating the performance of post-production ADS-equipped vehicles. Moreover, this guidance only addresses testing of ADS-operated vehicles as overseen by in-vehicle fallback test drivers (IFTD). These guidelines do not address: Remote driving, including remote fallback test driving of prototype ADS-operated test vehicles in driverless operation. (Note: The term “remote fallback test driver” is included as a defined term herein and is intended to be addressed in a future iteration of this document. However, at this time, too little is published or known about this type of testing to provide even preliminary guidance.) Testing of driver support features (i.e., Levels 1 and 2), which rely on a human driver to
On-Road Automated Driving (ORAD) Committee
SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice ARP1533 is a procedure for the analysis and evaluation of the measured composition of the exhaust gas from aircraft engines. Measurements of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, total hydrocarbon, and the oxides of nitrogen are used to deduce emission indices, fuel-air ratio, combustion efficiency, and exhaust gas thermodynamic properties. The emission indices (EI) are the parameters of critical interest to the engine developers and the atmospheric emissions regulatory agencies because they relate engine performance to environmental impact. While this procedure is intended to guide the analysis and evaluation of the emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines (burning conventional hydrocarbon based liquid fuels), the methodology may be applied to the analysis of the exhaust products of any hydrocarbon/air combustor. Some successful applications include: Aircraft engine combustor development rig tests (aviation jet fueled) Stationary source combustor
E-31G Gaseous Committee
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) outlines transient measurement methods to determine engine-generated levels of relevant compressor bleed air contaminant marker compounds on a ground level test cell for aircraft propulsion engine or auxiliary power unit (APU) to be fitted on civil and military aircraft. This AIR focuses on lubrication oils that might enter the bleed air through leaking engine seals or other sources. Also considered are ingested engine combustion products, which must be differentiated from oil. The intent of this AIR is to identify key species that are markers typical of contaminants, not to characterize all possible contaminants. Real-time (transient) measurement methods to approximately quantify those markers are also discussed. Real-time methods developed for transient measurement could also be applied for real-time measurements in steady state operations in ground level test beds. Discussions of test setup and test procedures, techniques for sampling
E-31B Bleed Air Committee
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) addresses many of the significant issues associated with effects of inlet total-pressure distortion on turbine-engine performance and stability. It provides a review of the development of techniques used to assess engine stability margins in the presence of inlet total-pressure distortion. Specific performance and stability issues that are covered by this document include total-pressure recovery and turbulence effects and steady and dynamic inlet total-pressure distortion
S-16 Turbine Engine Inlet Flow Distortion Committee
Power tools are essential in most modern industries. However, poorly selected and managed tools can contribute to safety risks, including physical injuries, noise-associated hearing loss, and repetitive motion injuries. Outdated or poorly maintained tools also cost far more to operate than better quality products and often create quality and productivity issues. This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) guides buyers and users of power tools in the evaluation, selection, and use of power tools for economy, efficiency, and safety. It intended to be a “layman’s guide” and supports the application of the SAE Aerospace Standard AS6228, which provides guidance for a scientific and engineering audience focusing upon manufacturers and engineering developers
EG-1B1 Power Tools - Productivity, Ergonomics and Safety
SAE TA-HB-0007-1A is an integral part of the following suite of documents, which are meant to be used together: SAE TA-STD-0017A, Product Support Analysis, SAE GEIA-STD-0007C, Logistics Product Data, SAE GEIA-HB-0007B, Logistics Product Data Handbook, and SAE TA-HB-0007-1A. MIL-HDBK-502A, Product Support Analysis provides additional guidance and instruction applicable to United States DoD programs. SAE TA-STD-0017A Product Support Analysis is a standard which prescribes a set of analysis activities for designing support and supporting the design of a product. MIL-HDBK-502A provides DoD users with implementation guidance for SAE TA-STD-0017A. The results of the analysis are Logistics Product Data. SAE GEIA-HB-0007B is a companion handbook to SAE GEIA-STD-0007C. The handbook provides standard guidance (i.e., how to), data population during life cycle phases, tailoring, contracting, data selection, a data map, and detailed information on data development for key and major fields (LCN
LCLS Life Cycle Logistics Supportability
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) describes and gives general guidelines on use and applicability of standard methods for impregnating dry fabric and lay-up of the impregnated plies. The methods of impregnating dry fabric and ply lay-up described in this document have specific application and are not interchangeable. The methods should only be used when specified in an approved repair procedure or with the agreement of the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) or regulatory authority
AMS CACRC Commercial Aircraft Composite Repair Committee
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) addresses the following: a Perceptions which inhibit the introduction of probabilistic methods b Technical limitations of probabilistic methods c Recommendations to help promote the use of probabilistic methods The document does not contain technical details of probabilistic methods, applications or benchmarking of specific approaches. These subjects are covered in other AIRs, referenced in Section 2 and prepared by the Probabilistic Methods Committee of the G-11 Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability and Logistics (RMSL) Division of SAE
G-11 Probabilistic Methods and Uncertainty Quantification
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