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Reduction of Parasitic Losses in Front-End Accessory Drive Systems: Part 2

SAE International Journal of Engines

FEV Group GmbH-Stefan Trampert
FEV North America Inc.-Marek Tatur, Dean Tomazic, Kiran Govindswamy
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0326
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Demanding CO2 and fuel economy regulations are continuing to pressure the automotive industry into considering innovative powertrain and vehicle-level solutions. Powertrain engineers continue to minimize engine internal friction and transmission parasitic losses with the aim of reducing overall vehicle fuel consumption.In Part 1 of the study (2017-01-0893) described aspects of the test stand design that provides flexibility for adaptation to various test scenarios. The results from measurements for a number of front-end accessory drive (FEAD) components were shown in the context of scatterbands derived from multiple component tests. Key results from direct drive and belt-driven component tests were compared to illustrate the influence of the belt layout on mechanical efficiency of the FEAD system.The second part of the series will focus exclusively on the operation of the alternator. Two main elements of the study are discussed. The first part explores tests performed to evaluate the main design aspects of the component. Different belt designs, routing, and tension levels were tested and compared. A resulting matrix allows to determine an optimized belt design and layout for…
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Reduction of Parasitic Losses in Front-End-Accessory-Drive Systems - Part 1

FEV North America Inc.-Marek Tatur, Kiran Govindswamy, Dean Tomazic
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Demanding CO2 and fuel economy regulations are continuing to pressure the automotive industry into considering innovative powertrain and vehicle-level solutions. Powertrain engineers continue to minimize engine internal friction and transmission parasitic losses with the aim of reducing overall vehicle fuel consumption. Strip friction methods are used to determine and isolate components in engines and transmissions with the highest contribution to friction losses. However, there is relatively little focus on friction optimization of Front-End-Accessory-Drive (FEAD) components such as alternators and Air Conditioning (AC) compressors. This paper expands on the work performed by other researchers’ specifically targeting in-depth understanding of system design and operating strategy. Prime focus of the first part of the study is to outline the development of a flexible test stand that allows for highly accurate torque measurements on such components under precisely controlled environmental boundary conditions and device loads. Initial testing results from multiple test units are also presented.This paper will detail aspects of the test stand design that provide flexibility for adaptation to various test scenarios. The results from measurements for a…
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Developing Drivetrain Robustness for Small Engine Testing

FEV GmbH-Hans-Dieter Sonntag, Norbert Wiehagen
FEV Inc.-Marek Tatur, Dean Tomazic, Thomas Jackson
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The increased demand in fuel economy and the reduction of CO₂ emissions results in continued efforts to downsize engines. The downsizing efforts result in engines with lower displacement as well as lower number of cylinders. In addition to cylinder and displacement downsizing the development community embarks on continued efforts toward down-speeding. The combination of the aforementioned factors results in engines which can have high levels of torsional vibrations. Such behavior can have detrimental effects on the drivetrain particularly during the development phase of these. Driveshafts, couplings, and dynamometers are exposed to these torsional forces and depending on their frequency costly damages in these components can occur.To account for these effects, FEV employs a multi-body-system modeling approach through which base engine information is used to determine optimized drivetrain setups. All mechanical elements in the setup are analyzed based on their torsional behavior. Bending and axial vibration are considered in the analysis as well. During the early stages of engine development, very little information is available to ensure proper drivetrain layout. To ensure highest possible usefulness of…
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SOLID SCR®: Demonstrating an Improved Approach to NOx Reduction via a Solid Reductant

FEV Inc-Marek Tatur, Dean Tomazic, Hoon Cho
Tenneco Inc-Figen Lacin, Adam Kotrba, Granville Hayworth, Henry Sullivan
Published 2011-09-13 by SAE International in United States
Stringent global emissions legislation demands effective NOx reduction strategies, particularly for the aftertreatment, and current typical liquid urea SCR systems achieve efficiencies greater than 90% [1]. However, with such high-performing systems comes the trade-off of requiring a tank of reductant (urea water solution) to be filled regularly, usually as soon as the fuel fillings or as far as oil changes. Advantages of solid reductants, particularly ammonium carbamate, include greater ammonia densities, enabling the reductant refill interval to be extended several multiples versus a given reductant volume of urea, or diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) [2]. An additional advantage is direct gaseous ammonia dosing, enabling reductant injection at lower exhaust temperatures to widen its operational coverage achieving greater emissions reduction potential [3], as well as eliminating deposits, reducing mixing lengths, and avoiding freeze/thaw risks and investments.Smaller diesel engine applications (2 - 3L) have been demonstrated with such solid reductant, but its scalability to larger applications is uncertain, demanding much greater reductant dosing rates, which in turn necessitates greater ammonia production and release rates [4, 5]. A Dodge…
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Development and Calibration of On-Board-Diagnostic Strategies Using a Micro-HiL Approach

FEV, Inc.-Harsha Nanjundaswamy, Marek Tatur, Dean Tomazic, Mufaddel Dahodwala, Thomas Eping, Lukas Virnich
Navistar, Inc.-Qianfan (Harry) Xin, Walter Gorczowski, Michael Read
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Beginning in 2010, implementation of on-board diagnostics (OBD) is mandatory for all the heavy-duty engine applications in the United States. The task of developing OBD strategies and calibrating them is a challenging one. The process involves a strong interdependency on base engine emissions, controls and regulations. On top of that the strategies developed as a result of the regulatory requirements need to go through a stringent and time-intensive process of software implementation and integration. The recent increasing demands to minimize the development process have been pushing the envelope on the methodologies used in developing the strategies and the calibration for robust monitoring. The goal of this paper is to provide a concise overview of a process utilized to help the development, testing and calibration of the OBD strategies on a 2010 model year heavy-duty diesel engine. The paper will focus on the setup of hardware-software-in-the-loop in detail by describing the components involved in the setup and their functionalities. The methods used to link the individual elements to achieve the goal of creating a virtual environment…
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Fuel Effects on Low Temperature Combustion in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

Chevron USA Inc.-William Cannella
FEV Inc.-Alok Warey, Marek Tatur, Dean Tomazic
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Effects of six different fuels on low temperature premixed compression ignition (PCI) combustion were experimentally investigated in this paper with a light-duty HSDI engine. The PCI combustion concept reduces NOx and smoke emissions simultaneously by low temperature and premixed combustion, respectively. To achieve low temperature and premixed combustion, the ignition delay is prolonged and the injection duration is shortened. Six fuels were chosen to examine the influence of cetane number (CN) and other fuel properties on low temperature PCI combustion. The fuel selection also included a pure Gas- to-Liquid (GTL) fuel and a blend of base diesel and 20% soy based biodiesel (B20). Fuel effects were studied over a matrix of seven part load points in the low temperature combustion mode. The seven part load points were specified by engine speed (RPM) and brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). Engine parameters such as pilot and main injection timing, pilot quantity, rail pressure, boost pressure and exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR) rate were kept the same and were not optimized for each fuel. Only the main injection quantity…
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Fuel Property Effects on Emissions and Performance of a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

FEV Inc.-Harsha Nanjundaswamy, Marek Tatur, Dean Tomazic
FEV Motorentechnik GmbH-Thomas Koerfer, Matthias Lamping, Andreas Kolbeck
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
Increased demand for highly fuel efficient propulsion systems drives the engine development community to develop advanced technologies allowing improving the overall thermal efficiency while maintaining low emission levels. In addition to improving the thermal efficiencies of the internal combustion engine itself the developments of fuels that allow improved combustion as well as lower the emissions footprint has intensified recently.This paper will describe the effects of five different fuel types with significantly differing fuel properties on a state-of-the-art light-duty HSDI diesel engine. The fuels cetane number ranges between 26 and 76. These fuels feature significantly differing boiling characteristics as well as heating values. The fuel selection also contains one pure biodiesel (SME - Soy Methyl Ester). This study was conducted in part load and full load operating points using a state of the art HSDI diesel engine. The part load operating points had combustion parameter sweeps to widen the understanding of combustion dynamics associated with fuels of varying properties over performance and emissions, where as at full load the effect of constant volume fuel injection over…
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Coking Phenomena in Nozzle Orifices of Dl-Diesel Engines

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

FEV Inc.-Marek Tatur, Dean Tomazic
FEV Motorentechnik GmbH-Matthias Lamping, Thomas Körfer
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-0837
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
Within a public founded project test cell investigations were undertaken to identify parameters which predominantly influence the development of critical deposits in injection nozzles. A medium-duty diesel engine was operated in two different coking cycles with a zinc-free lubricant. One of the cycles is dominated by rated power, while the second includes a wide area of the operation range. During the experiments the temperatures at the nozzle tip, the geometries of the nozzle orifice and fuel properties were varied. For a detailed analysis of the deposits methods of electron microscopy were deployed. In the course of the project optical access to all areas in the nozzle was achieved. The experiments were evaluated by means of the monitoring of power output and fuel flow at rated power. The usage of a SEM (scanning electron microscope) and a TEM (transmission electron microscope) revealed images of the deposits with a magnification of up to 160 000. The methods EDX (energy dispersive X-ray) and EELS (electron energy loss spectroscopy) delivered spectra of defined elements. The results of the project…
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Biodiesel Effects on U.S. Light-Duty Tier 2 Engine and Emission Control Systems - Part 2

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

FEV Inc.-Marek Tatur, Harsha Nanjundaswamy, Dean Tomazic
National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Matthew Thornton, Robert L. McCormick
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-0281
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
Raising interest in Diesel powered passenger cars in the United States in combination with the government mandated policy to reduce dependency of foreign oil, leads to the desire of operating Diesel vehicles with Biodiesel fuel blends.There is only limited information related to the impact of Biodiesel fuels on the performance of advanced emission control systems. In this project the implementation of a NOx storage and a SCR emission control system and the development for optimal performance are evaluated. The main focus remains on the discussion of the differences between the fuels which is done for the development as well as useful life aged components.From emission control standpoint only marginal effects could be observed as a result of the Biodiesel operation. The NOx storage catalyst results showed lower tailpipe emissions which were attributed to the lower exhaust temperature profile during the test cycle. The SCR catalyst tailpipe results were fuel neutral. The engine-out emissions formation showed increased NOx and decreased HC emissions with the Biodiesel blend. The observed effect specifically on NOx was up to 10%…
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Gas Exchange Optimization and the Impact on Emission Reduction for HSDI Diesel Engines

FEV Inc.-Marek Tatur, Dean Tomazic
FEV Motorentechnik GmbH-Philipp Adomeit, Thomas Körfer, Andreas Kolbeck, Matthias Lamping
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
The main tasks for all future powertrain developments are: regulated emissions, CO2-values, comfort, good drivability, high reliability and affordable costs.One widely discussed approach for fuel consumption improvement within passenger car applications, is to incorporate the downsizing effect. To attain constant engine performance an increase of boost pressure and/or rated speed is mandatory. In both cases, the mass flow rate through the intake and exhaust ports and valves will rise. In this context, the impact of the port layout on the system has to be reassessed.In this paper, the impact of the port layout on a modern diesel combustion system will be discussed and a promising concept shall be described in detail. The investigations shown include flow measurements, PIV measurements of intake flow, CFD simulations of the flow field during intake and results from the thermodynamic test bench. One of the important topics is to prove the impact of the flow quality on the combustion.Based on these investigations, a new port concept shall be presented, which uses a variable valve lift to provide a highly variable…
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