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This document provides background information, rationale, and data (both physical testing and computer simulations) used in defining the component test methods and similarity criteria described in SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) 6330. ARP6330 defines multiple test methods used to assess the effect of seat back mounted IFE monitor changes on blunt trauma to the head and post-impact sharp edge generation. The data generated is based on seat and IFE components installed on type A-T (transport airplane) certified aircraft. While not within the scope of ARP6330, generated test data for the possible future development of surrogate target evaluation methods is also included
Aircraft Seat Committee
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides recommendations for: The audit process in general A list of specific areas of attention to be audited Maintaining the test facility in such a manner that it meets audit requirements
EG-1E Gas Turbine Test Facilities and Equipment
This document has been prepared and issued to provide information and guidance on the application of AQAP 2110 when the Supplier adheres to the provisions of 9100. This document is published as AQAP 2009 Annex F and 9137. It was jointly developed by NATO and industry representatives for use by NATO and industry to facilitate the use and understanding of the relationship between the AQAP 2110 and 9100
G-14 Americas Aerospace Quality Standards Committee (AAQSC)
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) provides guidelines for the functional, performance, qualification and acceptance testing, and documentation requirements for the components of an airborne engine vibration monitoring (EVM) system which is intended for use as a turbojet engine rotor unbalance indicating system, per FAR 25.1305 (D)(3) on transport category airplanes
E-32 Aerospace Propulsion Systems Health Management
E-32 Aerospace Propulsion Systems Health Management
ARP5120 provides recommended best practices, procedures, and technology to guide the physical and functional design, development, integration, verification, and validation of highly reliable Engine Health Management (EHM) systems for aircraft engines and Auxiliary Power Units (APUs). This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) also serves as a concise reference of considerations, approaches, activities, and requirements for producing the end-to-end engine health management system comprised of both on and off-board subsystems for the sensing, acquisition, analysis, detection, and data handling functions for EHM. These functions may also be used to effect continued operation or return to service decisions when demonstrated as compliant with the applicable airworthiness requirements defined by the responsible Aviation Authority. Where practical, this document delineates between military and commercial practices
E-32 Aerospace Propulsion Systems Health Management
The effectiveness of Engine Life Usage Monitoring and Parts Management systems is largely determined by the aircraft-specific requirements. This document addresses the following areas: safety, life-limiting criteria, life usage algorithm development, data acquisition and management, parts life tracking, design feedback, and cost effectiveness. It primarily examines the requirements and techniques currently in use, and considers the potential impact of new technolog to the following areas: parts classification and control requirements, failure causes of life-limited parts, engine life prediction and usage measurement techniques, method validation, parts life usage data management, lessons learned, and life usage tracking benefits. SAE ARP1587 provides general guidance on the design consideration and objectives of monitoring systems for aircraft gas turbine engines. A major function of these Engine Monitoring Systems is to monitor the usage of life-limited parts in order to maximize
E-32 Aerospace Propulsion Systems Health Management
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to provide information that would be useful to potential users/operators and decision makers for evaluating and quantifying the benefits of an Engine Monitoring Systems (EMS) versus its cost of implementation. This document presents excerpts from reports developed to analyze "actual aircraft cost/benefits results". These are presented as follows: a. First, to outline the benefits and cost elements pertaining to EMS that may be used in performing a cost versus benefits analysis. b. Second, to present considerations for use in conducting the analysis. c. Third, to provide examples of analyses and results as they relate to the user/operator and decision-maker community. The document encompasses helicopters and fixed wing aircraft and distinguishes between civilian and military considerations. This document is not intended to be used as a technical guide, nor is it intended to provide methodologies, be a legal document, or be a
E-32 Aerospace Propulsion Systems Health Management
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides guidance for the design of flanges on temperature sensors intended for use in gas turbine engines. Three figures detail the configuration of standard size flange mounts with bolt holes, slotted flanges, and miniaturized flanges for small probes
E-32 Aerospace Propulsion Systems Health Management
An effective GSS is vital to the successful implementation of an EMS and is a fundamental part of the total monitoring system design, including asset management. Unlike the on-board part of the EMS which principally uses real time data to indicate when engine maintenance is required, a GSS can offer much greater processing power to comprehensively analyze and manipulate EMS data for both maintenance and logistics purposes. This document reviews the main EMS functions and discusses the operating requirements used to determine the basis design of a GSS, including the interfaces with other maintenance or logistic systems. A brief discussion is also included on some of the more recent advances in GSS technology that have been specifically developed to provide more effective diagnostic capabilities for gas turbine engines
E-32 Aerospace Propulsion Systems Health Management
This document is a guide to the application of magnesium alloys to aircraft interior components including but not limited to aircraft seats. It provides background information on magnesium, its alloys and readily available forms such as extrusions and plate. It also contains guidelines for “enabling technologies” for the application of magnesium to engineering solutions including: machining, joining, forming, cutting, surface treatment, flammability issues, and designing from aluminum to magnesium
Aircraft Seat Committee
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is only applicable to 14 CFR Part 25 transport airplane passenger and flight attendant seats. This document provides an approach for determining which parts on aircraft seats are required to meet the test requirements of 14 CFR Part 25 Appendix F, Parts IV and V. Additionally, it is recommended to use materials that meets the requirements of 14 CFR Part 25 Appendix F, Parts IV and V in applications where not required. Independent furniture installations related to seat installations are outside the scope of this document
Aircraft Seat Committee
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) defines a means of assessing the credibility of computer models of aircraft seating systems used to simulate dynamic impact conditions set forth in Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) Parts 23.562, 25.562, 27.562, and 29.562. The ARP is applicable to lumped mass and detailed finite element seat models. This includes specifications and performance criteria for aviation specific virtual anthropomorphic test devices (v-ATDs). This document provides a recommended methodology to evaluate the degree of correlation between a seat model and dynamic impact tests. This ARP also provides best practices for testing and modeling designed to support the implementation of analytical models of aircraft seat systems. Supporting information within this document includes procedures for the quantitative comparison of test and simulation results, as well as test summaries for data generated to support the development of v-ATDs and a sample v-ATD
Aircraft Seat Committee
This document outlines the evaluation and documentation appropriate when the components of an approved aircraft seat restraint system are replaced or modified by a party other than the Original Equipment Manufacturer of the restraint system
Aircraft Seat Committee
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) defines acceptable methods for determining the seat reference point (SRP), and the documentation requirements for that determination, for passenger and crew seats in Transport Aircraft, Civil Rotorcraft, and General Aviation Aircraft
Aircraft Seat Committee
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) defines additional documentation, environmental considerations, in-service damage limits, test and evaluation criteria necessary to support certification of aircraft seats manufactured using composite materials, in addition to requirements in AS8049 and ARP5526. This document is limited to aircraft seat composite parts in the seat primary load path from the occupant to the attachments of the seat to the aircraft. The term “composite” is inclusive of any fiber-reinforced polymer matrix materials such as carbon fiber-reinforced plastics, sandwich panels and bonded structure
Aircraft Seat Committee
Seat furnishings are installed around seats and are intended to enhance passenger privacy and comfort. They may have provisions for additional occupants to be seated when the aircraft is in-flight, but would not be occupied during taxi, take-off, and landing (TTL). This Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes the minimum design, performance and qualification requirements for seat furnishings with and without upper attachments (see Figures 1 and 2) to be installed in large transport category airplanes. This standard excludes seat furnishing designs that are directly attached to the seat assembly, for which AS8049 is the applicable standard. Integrated items (desk tops, cabinets, shelves, stowage areas, closeouts, dividers, etc.) connected to seat furnishings shall comply with the requirements of this AS as part of the seat furnishings
Aircraft Seat Committee
This document provides informational background, rationale and a technical case to allow consideration of the removal of the magnesium alloy restriction in aircraft seat construction as contained in AS8049B. The foundation of this argument is flammability characterization work performed by the FAA at the William J. Hughes Technical Center (FAATC), Fire Safety Branch in Atlantic City, New Jersey, USA. The rationale and detailed testing results are presented along with flammability reports that have concluded that the use of specific types of magnesium alloys in aircraft seat construction does not increase the hazard level potential in the passenger cabin in a post-crash fire scenario. Further, the FAA has developed a lab scale test method, reference DOT/FAA/TC-13/52, to be used as a certification test, or method of compliance (MOC) to allow acceptability of the use of magnesium in the governing TSO-C127 and TSO-C39C. Other flammability studies are also cited in the AIR document to
Aircraft Seat Committee
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) defines acceptable methods for determining the effect of disinfectants application to passenger and crew seating products in transport aircraft. This ARP selected a standard application process for all disinfectants in order to remove one variable from the investigation, which, at the time, was more concerned with the unknown effect of disinfectant chemicals on seat materials. The SAE Aircraft Seat Committee noted that most disinfectant manufacturers have their own application regimens to ensure the effectiveness of their product and that these differ from those defined in the ARP. Consequently, the standard application methodology defined in the ARP is not suitable for qualifying disinfectants, but is rather a standard method to compare the disinfectant’s behavior across a range of seat materials. Acceptance of individual disinfectants for specific application regimens is outside the scope of this ARP. The herein described application of
Aircraft Seat Committee
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is a general overview of typical airborne engine vibration monitoring (EVM) systems applicable to fixed or rotary wing aircraft applications, with an emphasis on system design considerations. It describes EVM systems currently in use and future trends in EVM development. The broader scope of Health and Usage Monitoring Systems, (HUMS) is covered in SAE documents AS5391, AS5392, AS5393, AS5394, AS5395, AIR4174. This ARP also contains the essential elements of AS8054 which remain relevant and which have not been incorporated into Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) specifications
E-32 Aerospace Propulsion Systems Health Management
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) defines the nomenclature of temperature measuring devices. General temperature measurement related terms are defined first, followed by nomenclature specifice to temperature measuring devices, particularly thermocouples
E-32 Aerospace Propulsion Systems Health Management
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to provide management, designers, and operators with information to assist them to decide what type of power train monitoring they desire. This document is to provide assistance in optimizing system complexity, performance and cost effectiveness. This document covers all power train elements from the point at which aircraft propulsion energy in a turbine or reciprocating engine is converted via a gear train to mechanical energy for propulsion purposes. The document covers aircraft engine driven transmission and gearbox components, their interfaces, drivetrain shafting, drive shaft hanger bearings, and associated rotating accessories, propellers, and rotor systems as shown in Figure 1. For guidance on monitoring additional engine components not addressed, herein (e.g., main shaft bearings and compressor/turbine rotors), refer to ARP1839. This document addresses rotary and fixed wing applications for rotor, turboprop, turbofan
E-32 Aerospace Propulsion Systems Health Management
For Engine Monitoring Systems to meet their potential for improved safety and reduced operation and support costs, significant attention must be focused on their reliability and validity throughout the life cycle. This AIR will provide program managers, designers, developers and customers a concise reference of the activities, approaches and considerations for the development and verification of a highly reliable engine monitoring system. When applying the guidelines of this AIR it should be noted that engine monitoring systems physically or functionally integrated with the engine control system and/or performing functions that affect engine safety or are used to effect continued operation or return to service decisions shall be subject to the Type Investigation of the product in which they'll be incorporated and have to show compliance with the applicable airworthiness requirements as defined by the responsible Aviation Authority. This is not limited to but includes the application of
E-32 Aerospace Propulsion Systems Health Management
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is a general overview of typical airborne engine vibration monitoring (EVM) systems applicable to fixed or rotary wing aircraft applications, with an emphasis on system design considerations. It describes EVM systems currently in use and future trends in EVM development. The broader scope of Health and Usage Monitoring Systems, (HUMS ) is covered in SAE documents AS5391, AS5392, AS5393, AS5394, AS5395, AIR4174
E-32 Aerospace Propulsion Systems Health Management
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides information and guidance for the selection and use of technologies and methods for lubrication system monitoring of gas turbine aircraft engines. This AIR describes technologies and methods covering oil system performance monitoring, oil debris monitoring, and oil condition monitoring. Both on-aircraft and off-aircraft applications are presented. A higher-level view of lubrication system monitoring as part of an overall engine monitoring system (EMS), is discussed in ARP1587. The scope of this document is limited to those lubrication system monitoring, inspection and analysis methods and devices that can be considered appropriate for health monitoring and routine maintenance. This AIR is intended to be used as a technical guide. It is not intended to be used as a legal document or standard
E-32 Aerospace Propulsion Systems Health Management
SAE Aerospace Information Report AIR1871 provides valuable insight into lessons learned in the development, implementation, and operation of various health monitoring systems for propulsion engines and drive train systems. This document provides an overview of the lessons learned for ground-based systems, oil debris monitoring systems, lubrication systems, and Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) for military and commercial programs. For each case study, this document presents a brief technical description, the design requirements, accomplishments, lessons learned, and future recommendations. The lessons learned presented in this document represent a fragment of the knowledge gained through experience when developing and implementing a propulsion health management system. Previous versions of this document contain additional lessons learned during the 1980’s and 1990’s that may be of additional value to the reader. This document will be maintained as technology progresses so that
E-32 Aerospace Propulsion Systems Health Management
This SAE Standard was developed to provide a method for indicating the direction of engine rotation and numbering of engine cylinders. The document is intended for use in designing new engines to eliminate the differences which presently exist in industry
Engine Power Test Code Committee
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) defines means to assess the effect of changes to seat back mounted IFE monitors on blunt trauma to the head and post-impact sharp edges. The assessment methods described may be used for evaluation of changes to seat back monitor delethalization (blunt trauma and post-test sharp edges) and head injury criterion (HIC) attributes (refer to ARP6448 Appendix A Items 3 and 6, respectively). Application is focused on type A-T (transport airplane) certified seat installations
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This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) defines the test set-up requirements, general analysis procedures, and test report documentation for impact tests where photometric analysis of the high speed film or digital video will be required to obtain target paths (typically the Anthropomorphic Test Dummy (ATD) head path and knee path). Such tests support the requirements of AS8049 - Performance Standard for Seats in Civil Rotorcraft, Transport Aircraft and General Aviation Aircraft. These setup and analysis procedures are applicable to conventional, geometry based, two-dimensional analysis. If a more sophisticated technique that allows cameras to be installed at oblique angles for two or three-dimensional analysis is used, then the specific procedures required by that technique supersede any conflicting procedures contained herein. Some of the requirements that could be superseded include camera placement, optical data channel evaluation, camera to subject measurements, and scaling
Aircraft Seat Committee
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines minimum performance standards and related qualification criteria for add-on child restraint systems (CRS) which provide protection for small children in passenger seats of transport category airplanes. The AS is not intended to provide design criteria that could be met only by an aircraft-specific CRS. The goal of this standard is to achieve child-occupant protection by specifying a dynamic test method and evaluation criteria for the performance of CRS under emergency landing conditions
Aircraft Seat Committee
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines qualification requirements, and minimum documentation requirements for forward and aft facing seats in Advanced Air Mobility aircraft. The goal is to achieve occupant protection under normal operational loads and to define test and evaluation criteria to demonstrate occupant protection when the seat is subjected to statically applied ultimate loads and to dynamic test conditions. While this document addresses system performance, responsibility for the seating system is divided between the seat manufacturer and the installation applicant. The seat manufacturer’s responsibility consists of meeting all the seat system performance requirements. The installation applicant has the ultimate system responsibility in assuring that all requirements for safe seat installation have been met. This AS is dependent on AS8049D and cannot be used without it. This AS provides revisions to the corresponding sections of AS8049D to incorporate new material specific
Aircraft Seat Committee
This specification defines basic physical, chemical, and performance limits for 5 cSt grades of gas turbine engine lubricating oils used in aero and aero-derived marine and industrial applications, along with standard test methods and requirements for laboratories performing them. It also defines the quality control requirements to assure batch conformance and materials traceability, and the procedures to manage and communicate changes in oil formulation and brand. This specification invokes the Performance Review Institute (PRI) product qualification process. Requests for submittal information may be made to the PRI at the address in Appendix D Section D.2, referencing this specification. Products qualified to this specification are listed on a Qualified Products List (QPL) managed by the PRI. Additional tests and evaluations may be required by individual equipment builders before an oil is approved for use in their equipment. Approval and/or certification for use of a specific gas
E-34 Propulsion Lubricants Committee
This test method provides procedures for exposing specimens of elastomer material (slab form) representative to those used in gas turbine engines to aviation lubricants under extended duration and engine relevant thermal conditions. For AS5780 requirements the time is at least 1800 hours and temperatures are 100 °C to 160 °C. Positive volume change is an indication of specimen swell and subsequent negative volume change is an indication of specimen deterioration, both properties are important in the evaluation of the compatibility of the lubricant with elastomers used in the construction of the gas turbine
E-34 Propulsion Lubricants Committee
This list of terms, with accompanying photomicrographs where appropriate, is intended as a guide for use in the preparation of material specifications
AMS G Titanium and Refractory Metals Committee
This specification covers vacuum-arc-cast molybdenum in the form of wrought round bars
AMS G Titanium and Refractory Metals Committee
This SAE Recommended Practice covers the mechanical and chemical requirements of the best quality hard drawn carbon steel spring wire used for the manufacture of engine valve springs and other springs requiring high fatigue properties. It also covers the basic material and processing requirements of springs fabricated from this wire
Metals Technical Committee
This Abstract Syntax Notation (ASN.1) file precisely specifies the structure of the data used to support the implementation of SAE International Standard 2945/6. Using the ASN.1 specification, a compiler tool can be used to produce encodings as required by the encoding rules identified in the standard. Both this file and the SAE J2735 ASN.1 files are necessary to collectively implement the data exchange described in the J2945/6. The combined library can be used by any application (along with the additional logic of the application) to exchange the data over an interface conformant to J2945/6. SAE J2945/6 specifies the interface and requirements for Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) and Platooning. It provides the information necessary to build interoperable systems that support CACC, which rely on the exchange of Cooperative Control Messages. You may also be interested in: Performance Requirements for Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) and Platooning™ the J2945/6 PDF
V2X Vehicular Applications Technical Committee
The purpose of this test procedure is to provide a uniform method of testing commercial spherical rod end bearings to determine their performance characteristics under specific application situations. This procedure is an extension of the dimensional requirements for spherical rod end bearings as set forth in SAE J1120 and J1259. The loads, number of cycles, definition of failure, etc., are to be agreed to by the user and supplier. This procedure can also be used as the basis for testing ball joints covered by SAE J490
Materials, Processes and Parts Council
This procedure is applicable to brake pad modes between 500 Hz and 16 kHz. The parameters measured with this procedure are defined as the first three natural frequencies, fn (n = 1, 2, 3), and the corresponding loss factors, η
Brake NVH Standards Committee
Test procedure for anti-lock brake system (ABS/anti-lock) performance for trucks, truck-tractors, and buses over 4536 kg (10000 pounds
Truck and Bus Brake Systems Committee
The scope of this SAE Information Report is to provide general information relative to the nature and use of magnetic particles for nondestructive testing. The document is not intended to provide detailed technical information, but will serve as an introduction to the theory and capabilities of magnetic particle testing, and as a guide to more extensive references
Metals Technical Committee
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended for all vehicle hydraulic brake hoses. It is an accelerated test which is intended to provide the user with a method of comparing the ability of hydraulic brake hose designs to retard the ingress of moisture into brake fluid. This document specifies a laboratory performance requirement. ASTM D 1364 interlaboratory reproducibility and correlation of data have not been defined, nor has correlation been established between field vehicle brake fluid moisture content and data obtained by this document
Automotive Brake and Steering Hose Standards Comm
This SAE Surface Vehicle Technical Information Report, SAE J2836/4, establishes diagnostic use cases between plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) and the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE). As PEVs are deployed and include both plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) and battery electric (BEV) vehicle variations, failures of the charging session between the EVSE and PEV may include diagnostics particular to the vehicle variations. This document describes the general information required for diagnostics and SAE J2847/4 will include the detail messages to provide accurate information to the customer and/or service personnel to identify the source of the issue and assist in resolution. Existing vehicle diagnostics can also be added and included during this charging session regarding issues that have occurred or are imminent to the EVSE or PEV, to assist in resolution of these items
Hybrid - EV Committee
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended as the definition of a standard test, but may be subject to frequent change to keep pace with experience and technical advances. This should be kept in mind when considering its use. The SAE No. 2 Friction Test Machine is used to evaluate the friction characteristics of automatic transmission plate clutches with automotive transmission fluids. It can also be used to conduct durability tests on wet friction systems. The specific purpose of this document is to define a 3600 rpm Stepped Power Test for the evaluation of wet friction system performance variation as a function of power level. This procedure uses an initial engagement speed of 3600 rpm and is intended as a standard procedure for common use by both suppliers and end users. The only variables selected by the supplier or user of the friction system are: a Friction Material b Fluid c Reaction Plates These three variables must be clearly identified when reporting the results of using this
Automatic Transmission and Transaxle Committee
Differences, where they exist, are shown in Appendix A. This SAE Standard defines the measuring principles to be used for measuring piston rings. It applies to piston rings up to and including 200 mm diameter for reciprocating combustion engines. These inspection measuring principles may also be used for piston rings for compressors working under analogous conditions
Piston and Ring Standards Committee
The following topics are included in this report: Section 2 - References Section 3-Definitions Section 4 - Material Selection Section 5 - Production Considerations Section 6 - Initial Structural Integrity Section 7 - In-Vehicle Testing Section 8 - Laboratory Testing The Material Selection section lists environmental factors and material properties which should be considered when determining appropriate fan material(s) for a given application. The Production Considerations section covers various aspects of machine selection, mold design, and process control. The Initial Structural Integrity section lists factors which should be considered in addition to those covered by Section 3 of SAE J1390. The In-Vehicle Testing section lists factors which should be considered in addition to those covered by Section 4 of SAE J1390. The Laboratory Testing section addresses some test considerations and methods for nonmetallic fans which differ from those used with metallic fans or which were not
Cooling Systems Standards Committee
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