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Evaluation of Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin with a Numerical Thermal Manikin (Part 2): Evaluation of Thermal Environment and Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin

AGC Inc.-Yoshiichi Ozeki, Seiko Suzuki
Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Hajime Oi, Yasushi Ichikawa, Akira Matsumoto
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In the previous paper (Part 1), measurements of equivalent temperature (teq) using a clothed thermal manikin and modeling of the clothed thermal manikin for teq simulation were discussed. In this paper (Part 2), the outline of the proposed mesh-free simulation method is described and comparisons between teq in the calculations and measurements under summer cooling with solar radiation and winter heating without solar radiation conditions in a vehicle cabin are discussed. The key factors for evaluating teq on each body segment of the clothed thermal manikin under cooling and heating conditions are also discussed. In the mesh-free simulation, even if there is a hole or an unnecessary shape on the CAD model, only a group of points whose density is controlled in the simulation area is generated without modifying the CAD model. Therefore, the fluid mesh required by conventional CFD code is not required, and the analysis load is significantly reduced. The most advantageous point is that this mesh-free simulation method satisfies the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy. The cabin thermal environment and…
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Evaluation of Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin with a Numerical Thermal Manikin (Part 1): Measurement of Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin and Development of a Numerical Thermal Manikin

AGC Inc.-Yoshiichi Ozeki, Seiko Suzuki
Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Hajime Oi, Yasushi Ichikawa, Akira Matsumoto, Fusaaki Takeo
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The present paper is Part 1 of two consecutive studies. Part 1 describes three subjects: definition of the equivalent temperature (teq), measurements of teq using a clothed thermal manikin in a vehicle cabin, and modeling of the clothed thermal manikin for teq simulation. After defining teq, a method for measuring teq with a clothed thermal manikin was examined. Two techniques were proposed in this study: the definition of “the total heat transfer coefficient between the skin surface and the environment in a standard environment (hcal)” based on the thermal insulation of clothing (Icl), and a method of measuring Icl in consideration of the area factor (fcl), which indicates the ratio of the clothing surface to the manikin surface area. Then, teq was measured in an actual vehicle cabin by the proposed method under two conditions: a summer cooling condition with solar radiation and a winter heating condition without solar radiation. The results showed that teq, including the effects of the air temperature, air velocity and thermal radiation, was measured properly. Subsequently, a numerical thermal manikin…
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Semiconductor Capacitance-Type Accelerometer with PWM Electrostatic Servo Technique

Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd.-Kazuo Sato
Hitachi Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd.-Seiko Suzuki, Shigeki Tuchitani
Published 1991-02-01 by SAE International in United States
A semiconductor capacitance -type accelerometer utilizing a pulse width modulation (PWM) electrostatic servo technique has been developed. Highly accurate detection of very small and low frequency acceleration became possible with the PWM sensing method. The limited air gaps between the movable and fixed electrodes ensured compatibility between high sensitivity and durability, while transverse sensitivity and temperature coefficient were reduced due to the symmetric structure of the sensing device. This sensor has been designed for the measurement range of 0 to ±1g, ±2g and 0 to 50Hz. The accelerometer is composed of two chips: the sensing device made by silicon micromachining technology and the custom IC made by bipolar CMOS technology.In this paper, we present the fundamental sensing principle, the sensing device, the custom IC and the characteristics of the new accelerometer.
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Wide-Range Air-Fuel Ratio Sensor, 1986

Hitachi, Ltd.-Sadayasu Ueno, Norio Ichikawa, Seiko Suzuki, Kazuyoshi Terakado
Published 1986-02-01 by SAE International in United States
The oxygen ion conductive solid electrolyte cell served as a device for measuring the combustibles content and the oxygen content of an exhaust gas. The cell is comprised of a tubular electrolyte, two opposed electrodes and a porous diffusion layer located on the outer electrode surface. The sensor is employed to measure both rich and lean air fuel ratio through the use of an electronic circuit pumping the oxygen ions to achieve a constant voltage between the electrodes. The wide range detecting capability makes it particularly attractive for air fuel ratio control applications associated with the internal combustion engine.The result of the performance tests are as follows,Detecting range (air excess ratio λ) : 0.8 - “∞ Step response time constant (63%) : 200ms Warm up time. - less than 80 sec at 20°C We found in the durability test concerned with the heat cycle and contamination that if initial aging treatment is applied the output variation ratio (. λ/λ) is limited with in : 5%.
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