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A Co-Simulation Platform for Powertrain Controls Development

Hyundai-Kia America Technical Center Inc.-Shihong Fan, Yong Sun, Jason Hoon Lee, Jinho Ha
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0265
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the advancement of simulation software development, the efficiency of vehicle and powertrain controls research and development can be significantly improved. Traditionally, during the development of a new control algorithm, dyno or on-road testing is necessary to validate the algorithm. Physical testing is not only costly, but also time consuming. In this study, a virtual platform is developed to reduce the effort of testing. To improve the simulation accuracy, co-simulation of multiple software is suggested as each software specializes in certain area. The Platform includes Matlab Simulink, PTV Vissim, Tass Prescan and AVL Cruise. PTV Vissim is used to provide traffic environment to PreScan. PreScan is used for ego vehicle simulation and visualization. Traffic, signal and road network are synchronized in Vissim and PreScan. Powertrain system is simulated in Cruise. MATALB/Simulink serves as master of this co-simulation, and integrates the different software together. It also includes human driver model and a powertrain control function. An ADAS-ISG (Idle Stop and Go) powertrain control algorithm is implemented in Simulink and tested by using the platform under different…
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Self-Exploration of Automated System under Dynamic Environment

Isuzu Technical Center of America Inc.-Weiyang Zhang, Yong Sun, Haokun He, Wenbo Yu, Pengcheng Cai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0126
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Exploring an unknown place autonomously is a challenge for robots, especially when the environment is changing. Moreover, in real world application, efficient path planning is crucial for autonomous vehicles to have timely response to execute a collision-free motion. In this paper we focus on environment exploration which enables an automated system to establish a map of an unknown environment with unforeseen objects moving within it. We introduce an exploration package that enables robots self-exploration with an online collision avoidance planner. The package consists of exploration module, global planner module and local planner module. We modularize the package so that developers can easily make modifications or even substitutions to some modules for their specific application. In order to validate the algorithm, we designed and built a robot car as a low cost validation platform to test the autonomous vehicle algorithms in the real world. The car has a 22.36 x 11.65 x 7.6 inches, 4X4 brush-less short course truck chassis, which has a dynamic model similar to a passenger car, but in a scaled pattern. An…
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EGR Temperature Estimation Model Including the Effect of Coolant Flow Rate for EGR Control

Hyundai-Kia America Technical Center Inc.-Yong Sun, Jason Hoon Lee, Jinho Ha, Byungho Lee
University of Michigan - Dearborn-Kyoung Hyun Kwak, Dewey Jung
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0264
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Recently developed gasoline engines utilize more aggressive EGR rate to meet the emissions and fuel economy regulations. The EGR temperature is often estimated by the ECU and its accuracy affects the estimations of EGR flow rate and intake air flow rate and temperature. Therefore, the accuracy of EGR temperature estimation becomes more important than ever for precise EGR rate control. Typical lookup map based EGR cooler model without the sensitivity to the coolant flow rate is acceptable and widely used if the heat capacity of the coolant side is high enough. However, the coolant flow rate under real vehicle driving conditions often visit low-speed high-load part of the engine map where the lookup map based model suffers from the accuracy issues. This paper presents an investigation of the accuracy of the lookup map based model under different heat capacity conditions. In this study, a simple EGR cooler model based on effectiveness-NTU method was also developed. Coolant flow rate used in this model is calculated with a regressed model, which is a function of engine speed…
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Multi-Objective Optimization Design of Hybrid Material Bumper for Pedestrian Protection and Crashworthiness Design

Dalian University of Technology-Chang Qi, Yong Sun, Shu Yang
Tsinghua University-Zhen-Hua Lu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0201
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In vehicle accident, the bumper beam generally requires high stiffness for sufficient survival space for occupants while it may cause serious pedestrian lower extremity injuries. The aim of this study is to promote an aluminum-steel hybrid material double-hat bumper to meet the comprehensive requirements. The hybrid bumper is designed to improve the frontal crash and pedestrian protection performances in collision accidents. Finite element (FE) models of the hybrid bumper was built, validated, and integrated into an automotive model. The Fixed Deformable Barrier (FDB) and Transport Research Laboratory (TRL) legform model were used to obtain the vehicle crashworthiness and pedestrian lower leg injury indicators. Numerical results showed that the hybrid bumper had a great potential for crashworthiness performance and pedestrian protection characteristics. Based on this, a multi-objective optimization design (MOD) was performed to search the optimal geometric parameters. The MOD results showed that the comprehensive performance of the hybrid bumper had been effectively improved and the optimized design exhibited excellent characteristics in frontal crashworthiness and pedestrian protection in vehicle collision accidents.
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A Comparative Study on Engine Thermal Management System

Hyundai-Kia America Technical Center, Inc.-Yong Sun, Jason Hoon Lee, Jinho Ha, EunKyung Lee
The University of Alabama-Samuel Wilson, Hwan-Sik Yoon
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0946
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As the automotive industry faces tighter fuel economy and emission regulations, it is becoming increasingly important to improve powertrain system efficiency. One of the areas to improve powertrain efficiency is the thermal management system. By controlling how to distribute the heat rejected by the engine, especially during the warm-up stage under cold temperatures, an engine thermal management system can improve the overall energy efficiency of the powertrain system. Conventionally, engine thermal management systems have been operated by a mechanical water pump and a thermostat. However, the recent introduction of electric water pumps and electrically-controlled flow valves allow for more sophisticated control of the thermal management system. In this study, these two different thermal management system architectures are investigated by conducting simulations. Specifically, a vehicle model with a high-fidelity thermal management system is developed in GT-SUITE and a simple rule-based control algorithm is applied to control the system. Using the system model, multiple drive cycle simulations are conducted and their performances are compared and discussed.
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Development of Advanced Idle Stop-and-Go Control Utilizing V2I

Hyundai-Kia America Technical Center Inc.-Jason Hoon Lee, Yong Sun, Josiah Humphrey, Jinho Ha, Byungho Lee
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0581
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Previous studies proposed the utilization of Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) for introducing adaptiveness to powertrain control with respect to traffic situation change. When vehicle stops with the engine shut off by Auto Stop/Start function, the controller keeps watching the movement of preceding vehicle using ADAS sensors. Then it restarts the engine automatically as soon as it detects the launch of the vehicle ahead, before the driver releases brake pedal. The control logic also can inhibit Auto Stop/Start under specific driving conditions, for example, stopping for a stop sign or waiting at a roundabout by utilizing the traffic sign recognition function of vision sensor. In the prior studies it was demonstrated through actual vehicle tests that the new control method can improve the Auto Stop/Start performance, thereby mitigating customer complaints regarding the hesitation in engine restart and promoting the usage. However, the previously suggested method based on movement detection becomes useless if there was no target vehicle ahead to follow. The issue arises when the vehicle happens to be the first vehicle from traffic light…
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Robust Validation Platform of Autonomous Capability for Commercial Vehicles

Isuzu Technical Center of America Inc.-Yong Sun, Hanxiang Li, Weilun Peng
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Global deployment of autonomous capability for commercial vehicles is a big challenge. In order to improve the robustness of autonomous approach under different traffic scenarios, environments, road conditions, and driver behaviors, a combined approach of virtual simulation, vehicle-in-the-loop (VIL) testing, proving ground testing, and final field testing have been established for algorithms validation. During the validation platform setup, different platforms for different functionalities have been studied, including open source virtual testing environment (CARLA, AirSim), and commercial one (IPG). We also cooperate with MCity to do proving ground validation. In virtual testing, the functionality of sensors (camera, radar, Lidar, GPS, IMU) and vehicle dynamic models can be applied in the virtual environment. In VIL testing, real world and virtual test will be connected for different validation purposes. The proving ground testing will be performed in real environment with rich scenarios and high safety. Several challenges have been overcome during implementation, including data transmission, computing time, sensor system consistency, vehicle dynamic model consistency and etc. In this paper, a robust autonomous driving validation platform, including perception, planning…
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On-Board Predictive Maintenance with Machine Learning

Isuzu Technical Center of America Inc.-Yong Sun, Zhentao Xu, Tianyu Zhang
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Field Issue (Malfunction) incidents are costly for the manufacturer’s service department. Especially for commercial truck providers, downtime can be the biggest concern for our customers. To reduce warranty cost and improve customer confidence in our products, preventive maintenance provides the benefit of fixing the problem when it is small and reducing downtime of scheduled targeted service time. However, a normal telematics system has difficulty in capturing useful information even with pre-set triggers. Some malfunction issue takes weeks to find the root cause due to the difficulty of repeating the error in a different vehicle and engineers must analyze large amounts of data. In order to solve these challenges, a machine-learning-based predictive software/hardware system has been implemented. Multiple machine learning techniques, including CNN(Convolutional Neural Network), have been utilized in the proposed pipeline to: 1) decide when to record data. 2) decide what data to record. 3) root cause diagnostics on the spot based on time-series data analysis. A novel technique has been proposed to solve the lack of training data for the root cause analysis neural…
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Water Recovery from Gasoline Engine Exhaust for Water Injection

Southwest Research Institute-Eric Randolph
Tenneco Inc.-Yong Sun, Michael Fischer, Michael Bradford, Adam Kotrba
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Water injection (WI) can improve gasoline engine performance and efficiency, and on-board water recovery technology could eliminate the need for customers to refill an on-board water reservoir. In this regard, the technical feasibility of exhaust water recovery (EWR) is described in this paper. Water injection testing was conducted at a full load condition (5000 rpm/18.1 bar BMEP) and a high load condition (3000 rpm/14.0 bar BMEP) on a turbocharged gasoline direction injection (GTDI) engine. Water recovery testing was conducted both after the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler and after the charge air cooler (CAC) at a high load (3000 rpm/14.0 bar BMEP), as well as a part load (2080 rpm/6.8 bar BMEP) condition, at temperatures ca. 10-15 °C below the dew point of the flow stream. Three types of water separation designs were tested: a passive cyclone separator (CS), a passive membrane separator (MEM), and an active separator (AS). Water injection and recovery amount was also simulated on three different drive cycles: FTP, WLTP and US06. The results showed that using water injection at full load reduced fuel enrichment requirements and reduced knock, yielding…
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Urea Deposit Predictions on a Practical Mid/Heavy Duty Vehicle After-Treatment System

Convergent Science Inc.-Scott Drennan
Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Ltd.-Keiko Shibata
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Urea/SCR systems have been proven effective at reducing NOx over a wide range of operating conditions on mid/heavy duty diesel vehicles. However, design changes due to reduction in the size of modern compact Urea/SCR systems and lower exhaust temperature have increased the possibility of urea deposit formation. Urea deposits are formed when urea in films and droplets undergoes undesirable secondary reactions and generate by-products such as ammelide, biuret and cyanuric Acid (CYA). Ammelide and CYA are difficult to decompose which lead to the formation of solid deposits on the surface. This phenomenon degrades the performance of the after treatment system by decreasing overall mixing efficiency, lowering de-NOx efficiency and increasing pressure drop. Therefore, mitigating urea deposits is a primary design goal of modern diesel after-treatment systems. The purpose of current study is to introduce the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach to predict urea deposit formation in the Isuzu exhaust system using detailed urea decomposition mechanism. Conjugate Heat Transfer (CHT) is used along with the advanced splashing and film evaporation models to correctly predict the film…
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