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Eco-Driving Strategies for Different Powertrain Types and Scenarios

Argonne National Laboratory-Simeon Iliev, Eric Rask, Kevin Stutenberg, Michael Duoba
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2608
To be published on 2019-10-22 by SAE International in United States
Connected automated vehicles (CAVs) are quickly becoming a reality, and their potential ability to communicate with each other and the infrastructure around them has big potential impacts on future mobility systems. Perhaps one of the most important impacts could be on network wide energy consumption. A lot of research has already been performed on the topic of eco-driving and the potential fuel and energy consumption benefits for CAVs. However, most of the efforts to date have been based on simulation studies only, and have only considered conventional vehicle powertrains. In this study, experimental data is presented for the potential eco-driving benefits of two specific intersection approach scenarios and four different powertrain types. The two intersection approach scenarios considered in this study include an approach to a red light where coming to a complete stop is avoidable and one where a complete stop is determined necessary thanks to advance information from vehicle to infrastructure communication (V2I). The four powertrain types tested in this study include an advanced conventional vehicle, a conventional vehicle with idle stop-start capability,…
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Analysis and Model Validation of the Toyota Prius Prime

Argonne National Laboratory-Jongryeol Jeong, Namdoo Kim, Kevin Stutenberg, Aymeric Rousseau
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The Toyota Prius Prime is a new generation of Toyota Prius plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, the electric drive range of which is 25 miles. This version is improved from the previous version by the addition of a one-way clutch between the engine and the planetary gear-set, which enables the generator to add electric propulsive force. The vehicle was analyzed, developed and validated based on test data from Argonne National Laboratory’s Advanced Powertrain Research Facility, where chassis dynamometer set temperature can be controlled in a thermal chamber. First, we analyzed and developed components such as engine, battery, motors, wheels and chassis, including thermal aspects based on test data. By developing models considering thermal aspects, it is possible to simulate the vehicle driving not only in normal temperatures but also in hot, cold, or warmed-up conditions. Next, we analyzed supervisory vehicle control to merge the separately developed vehicle component models in a vehicle simulation model. The supervisory vehicle control includes engine on/off, battery energy management, engine operating conditions, and so on. In particular, we analyzed the control…
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Model Validation of the Chevrolet Volt 2016

Argonne National Laboratory-Jongryeol JEONG, Namdoo Kim, Kevin Stutenberg, Aymeric Rousseau
Seoul National University-Heeyun Lee
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Validation of a vehicle simulation model of the Chevrolet Volt 2016 was conducted. The Chevrolet Volt 2016 is equipped with the new “Voltec” extended-range propulsion system introduced into the market in 2016. The second generation Volt powertrain system operates in five modes, including two electric vehicle modes and three extended-range modes. Model development and validation were conducted using the test data performed on the chassis dynamometer set in a thermal chamber of Argonne National Laboratory’s Advanced Powertrain Research Facility. First, the components of the vehicle, such as the engine, motor, battery, wheels, and chassis, were modeled, including thermal aspects based on the test data. For example, engine efficiency changes dependent on the coolant temperature, or chassis heating or air-conditioning operations according to the ambient and cabin temperature, were applied. Second, the vehicle-level control strategy was analyzed under normal ambient temperature conditions for both charge-depleting and charge-sustaining modes. Next step, the effect of thermal conditions, such as ambient temperature or vehicle initial states (soaked or warmed-up vehicle), on the vehicle-level control strategy was analyzed. Operation of…
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Control Analysis and Model Validation for BMW i3 Range Extender

Argonne National Laboratory-Jongryeol Jeong, Namdoo Kim, Kevin Stutenberg, Aymeric Rousseau
Sungkyunkwan University-Wonbin Lee
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The control analysis and model validation of a 2014 BMW i3-Range Extender (REX) was conducted based on the test data in this study. The vehicle testing was performed on a chassis dynamometer set within a thermal chamber at the Advanced Powertrain Research Facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The BMW i3-REX is a series-type plug-in hybrid range extended vehicle which consists of a 0.65L in-line 2-cylinder range-extending engine with a 26.6kW generator, 125kW permanent magnet synchronous AC motor, and 18.8kWh lithium-ion battery. Both component and vehicle model including thermal aspects, were developed based on the test data. For example, the engine fuel consumption rate, battery resistance, or cabin HVAC energy consumption are affected by the temperature. Second, the vehicle-level control strategy was analyzed at normal temperature conditions (22°C ambient temperature). The analysis focuses on the engine on/off strategy, battery SOC balancing, and engine operating conditions. Next, we analyze the differences in control strategy based on the environmental conditions (−7°C or 35°C ambient temperatures) or vehicle state (soaked or warmed-up vehicle). Finally, the validation of the developed…
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On-Road and Dynamometer Evaluation of Vehicle Auxiliary Loads

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Argonne National Laboratory-Kevin Stutenberg
Idaho National Laboratory-Richard Barney Carlson
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0901
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Laboratory and on-road vehicle evaluation is conducted on four vehicle models to evaluate and characterize the impacts to fuel economy of real-world auxiliary loads.The four vehicle models in this study include the Volkswagen Jetta TDI, Mazda 3 i-ELOOP, Chevrolet Cruze Diesel, and Honda Civic GX (CNG). Four vehicles of each model are included in this; sixteen vehicles in total. Evaluation was conducted using a chassis dynamometer over standard drive cycles as well as twelve months of on-road driving across a wide range of road and environmental conditions.The information gathered in the study serves as a baseline to quantify future improvements in auxiliary load reduction technology. The results from this study directly support automotive manufacturers in regards to potential “off-cycle” fuel economy credits as part of the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) regulations, in which credit is provided for advanced technologies in which reduction of energy consumption from vehicle auxiliary loads can be demonstrated.The observed on-road auxiliary load varied from 135 W to over 1200 W across a wide range of ambient conditions and utilization patterns.…
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Performance and Efficiency Assessment of a Production CNG Vehicle Compared to Its Gasoline Counterpart

Argonne National Laboratory-Thomas Wallner, Kevin Stutenberg, Henning Lohse-Busch, Michael Duoba
Michigan Technological Univ.-Jay Anderson, Scott Miers
Published 2014-10-13 by SAE International in United States
Two modern light-duty passenger vehicles were selected for chassis dynamometer testing to evaluate differences in performance end efficiency resulting from CNG and gasoline combustion in a vehicle-based context. The vehicles were chosen to be as similar as possible apart from fuel type, sharing similar test weights and identical driveline configurations.Both vehicles were tested over several chassis dynamometer driving cycles, where it was found that the CNG vehicle exhibited 3-9% lower fuel economy than the gasoline-fueled subject. Performance tests were also conducted, where the CNG vehicle's lower tractive effort capability and longer acceleration times were consistent with the lower rated torque and power of its engine as compared to the gasoline model.The vehicles were also tested using quasi-steady-state chassis dynamometer techniques, wherein a series of engine operating points were studied. When the indicated thermal efficiency at each point was calculated, it was found that the CNG vehicle typically exhibited lower thermal efficiency.Several operating points were chosen for further characterization of engine efficiency and combustion behavior, including an analysis of losses. Though the CNG engine had better…
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Ambient Temperature (20°F, 72°F and 95°F) Impact on Fuel and Energy Consumption for Several Conventional Vehicles, Hybrid and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Battery Electric Vehicle

Argonne National Laboratory-Henning Lohse-Busch, Michael Duoba, Eric Rask, Kevin Stutenberg
US Dept of Energy-Lee Slezak, David Anderson
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
This paper determines the impact of ambient temperature on energy consumption of a variety of vehicles in the laboratory. Several conventional vehicles, several hybrid electric vehicles, a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and a battery electric vehicle were tested for fuel and energy consumption under test cell conditions of 20°F, 72°F and 95°F with 850 W/m₂ of emulated radiant solar energy on the UDDS, HWFET and US06 drive cycles.At 20°F, the energy consumption increase compared to 72°F ranges from 2% to 100%. The largest increases in energy consumption occur during a cold start, when the powertrain losses are highest, but once the powertrains reach their operating temperatures, the energy consumption increases are decreased. At 95°F, the energy consumption increase ranges from 2% to 70%, and these increases are due to the extra energy required to run the air-conditioning system to maintain 72°F cabin temperatures. These increases in energy consumption depend on the air-conditioning system type, powertrain architecture, powertrain capabilities and drive patterns. The more efficient the powertrain, the larger the impact of climate control (heating or…
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