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Uncertainty of the Ice Particles Median Mass Diameters Retrieved from the HAIC-HIWC Dataset: A Study of the Influence of the Mass Retrieval Method

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

Delphine Leroy
Airbus-Alice Grandin, Fabien Dezitter
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-1983
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
In response to the ice crystal icing hazard identified twenty years ago, aviation industry, regulation authorities, and research centers joined forces into the HAIC-HIWC international collaboration launched in 2012. Two flight campaigns were conducted in the high ice water content areas of tropical mesoscale convective systems in order to characterize this environment conducive to ice crystal icing. Statistics on cloud microphysical properties, such as Ice Water Content (IWC) or Mass Median Diameter (MMD), derived from the dataset of in situ measurements are now being used to support icing certification rulemaking and anti-icing systems design (engine and air data probe) activities. This technical paper focuses on methodological aspects of the derivation of MMD. MMD are estimated from PSD and IWC using a multistep process in which the mass retrieval method is a critical step. Complementary to previous studies reporting on MMD values calculated from the HAIC-HIWC dataset, this paper deals with the uncertainty in MMD by comparing two different approaches for the retrieval of the mass-size (m-D) relationship. The analysis encompasses the data collected in the…
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Summary of the High Ice Water Content (HIWC) RADAR Flight Campaigns

AMA-NASA Langley Research Center-Justin Strickland, Patricia Hunt
FAA William J. Hughes Technical Center-Christopher Dumont
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
NASA and the FAA conducted two flight campaigns to quantify onboard weather radar measurements with in-situ measurements of high concentrations of ice crystals found in deep convective storms. The ultimate goal of this research was to improve the understanding of high ice water content (HIWC) and develop onboard weather radar processing techniques to detect regions of HIWC ahead of an aircraft to enable tactical avoidance of the potentially hazardous conditions. Both HIWC RADAR campaigns utilized the NASA DC-8 Airborne Science Laboratory equipped with a Honeywell RDR-4000 weather radar and in-situ microphysical instruments to characterize the ice crystal clouds. The purpose of this paper is to summarize how these campaigns were conducted and highlight key results.The first campaign was conducted in August 2015 with a base of operations in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida. Ten research flights were made into deep convective systems that included Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCS) near the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean, and Tropical Storms Danny and Erika near the Caribbean Sea. The radar and in-situ measurements from these ten flights were analyzed…
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A Continuing Investigation of Diurnal and Location Trends in an Ice Crystal Icing Engine Event Database

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

Boeing Co-Melissa Bravin
Met Analytics, Inc.-J. Walter Strapp
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-1964
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Due to ongoing efforts by the aviation industry, much has been learned over the last several years regarding jet engine power loss and compressor damage events caused by the ingestion of high concentrations of ice crystal particles into the core flow path. Boeing has created and maintained a database of such ice crystal icing (ICI) events to aid in analysis and further study of this phenomenon. This article provides a general update on statistics derived from the Boeing event database, and provides more details on specific event clusters of interest. A series of three flight campaigns have, over the past five years, collected in-situ data in deep convective clouds that will be used for the assessment of the new FAA CFR Part 33 ice crystal environmental envelope Appendix D, and the equivalent EASA CS-25 Appendix P. The most recent Boeing engine event study in 2015 focused on oceanic cloud systems that caused events in Southeast Asia, a region expected to have similar cloud properties as the first flight campaign in Darwin, Australia. The current study…
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Analysis and Automated Detection of Ice Crystal Icing Conditions Using Geostationary Satellite Datasets and In Situ Ice Water Content Measurements

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

Met Analytics, Inc.-J. Walter Strapp
NASA John Glenn Research Center-Thomas Ratvasky
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-1953
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Recent studies have found that high mass concentrations of ice particles in regions of deep convective storms can adversely impact aircraft engine and air probe (e.g. pitot tube and air temperature) performance. Radar reflectivity in these regions suggests that they are safe for aircraft penetration, yet high ice water content (HIWC) is still encountered. The aviation weather community seeks additional remote sensing methods for delineating where ice particle (or crystal) icing conditions are likely to occur, including products derived from geostationary (GEO) satellite imagery that is now available in near-real time at increasingly high spatio-temporal detail from the global GEO satellite constellation. A recent study using a large sample of co-located GEO satellite and in-situ isokinetic evaporator probe (IKP-2) total water content (TWC) datasets found that optically thick clouds with tops near to or above the tropopause in close proximity (≤ 40 km) to convective updrafts were most likely to contain high TWC (TWC ≥ 1 g m-3). These parameters are detected using automated algorithms and combined to generate a HIWC probability (PHIWC) product at…
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Radar Detection of High Concentrations of Ice Particles - Methodology and Preliminary Flight Test Results

AMA - NASA Langley Research Center-Justin Strickland, Patricia Hunt, George Switzer
Federal Aviation Administration-Christopher Dumont
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
High Ice Water Content (HIWC) has been identified as a primary causal factor in numerous engine events over the past two decades. Previous attempts to develop a remote detection process utilizing modern commercial radars have failed to produce reliable results. This paper discusses the reasons for previous failures and describes a new technique that has shown very encouraging accuracy and range performance without the need for any modifications to industry’s current radar design(s). The performance of this new process was evaluated during the joint NASA/FAA HIWC RADAR II Flight Campaign in August of 2018. Results from that evaluation are discussed, along with the potential for commercial application, and development of minimum operational performance standards for future radar products.
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An Investigation into Location and Convective Lifecycle Trends in an Ice Crystal Icing Engine Event Database

Boeing Commercial Airplanes-Melissa Bravin, Jeanne Mason
Met Analytics Inc.-J. Walter Strapp
Published 2015-06-15 by SAE International in United States
In the last several years, the aviation industry has improved its understanding of jet engine events related to the ingestion of ice crystal particles. Ice crystal icing has caused powerloss and compressor damage events (henceforth referred to as “engine events”) during flights of large transport aircraft, commuter aircraft and business jets. A database has been created at Boeing to aid in analysis and study of these engine events. This paper will examine trends in the engine event database to better understand the weather which is associated with events. The event database will be evaluated for a number of criteria, such as the global location of the event, at what time of day the event occurred, in what season the event occurred, and whether there were local meteorological influences at play. A large proportion of the engine events occur in tropical convection over the ocean. The Japan / South China Sea is shown to be an event-rich area, and hence a detailed analysis will be presented, studying the location of events inside the cloud structure, and…
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HAIC/HIWC Field Campaign - Specific Findings on PSD Microphysics in High IWC Regions from In Situ Measurements: Median Mass Diameters, Particle Size Distribution Characteristics and Ice Crystal Shapes

Airbus-Alice Grandin
Airbus Operation SAS-Fabien Dezitter
Published 2015-06-15 by SAE International in United States
Despite past research programs focusing on tropical convection, the explicit studies of high ice water content (IWC) regions in Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCS) are rare, although high IWC conditions are potentially encountered by commercial aircraft during multiple in-service engine powerloss and airdata probe events.To gather quantitative data in high IWC regions, a multi-year international HAIC/HIWC (High Altitude Ice Crystals / High Ice Water Content) field project has been designed including a first field campaign conducted out of Darwin (Australia) in 2014. The airborne instrumentation included a new reference bulk water content measurement probe and optical array probes (OAP) recording 2D images of encountered ice crystals.The study herein focuses on ice crystal size properties in high IWC regions, analyzing in detail the 2D image data from the particle measuring probes. Various geometrical parameters were extracted from the images in order to calculate particle size distributions (PSDs) and finally deduce median mass diameters with additional information on the ice density.The preliminary analysis of all HAIC/HIWC flights performed during this first flight campaign out of Darwin, demonstrates that…
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Improvements of the PLANET System for Real-Time Satellite Data Transmission During the HAIC-HIWC Darwin Field Campaign

ATMOSPHERE, Systèmes & Services-Sandra Turner, Jean-Marc Gaubert, Remy Gallois, Thibault Dacla, Ingrid Mullie
Airbus-Fabien Dezitter, Alice Grandin
Published 2015-06-15 by SAE International in United States
The PLANET System was used for real-time satellite data transmission during the HAIC-HIWC Darwin field campaign (January to March 2014). The basic system was initially providing aircraft tracking, chat, weather text messages (METAR, TAF, etc.), and aeronautical information (NOTAMs) in a standalone application. In the framework of the HAIC project, many improvements were made in order to fulfill requirements of the onboard and ground science teams for the field campaign. The aim of this paper is to present the main improvements of the system that were implemented for the Darwin field campaign. New features of the system are related to the hardware component, the communication protocol, weather and tracking display, geomarkers on the map, and image processing and compression before onboard transfer.
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Appendix D - An Interim Icing Envelope

Environment Canada-J. Walter Strapp
Trebor Systems, Inc-Robert S. Mazzawy
Published 2007-09-24 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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