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Stevenson, Paul
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Evaluation of Fischer-Tropsch Fuel Performance in Advanced Diesel Common Rail FIE

Delphi Diesel Systems-Paul Lacey, Jean Marc Kientz, Sandro Gail, Nebojsa Milovanovic
Shell Global Solutions Maylasia-Ratchatapong Boonwatsakul
Published 2010-10-25 by SAE International in United States
An increasing range of conventional and unconventional feed stocks will be used to produce fuel of varying chemical and physical properties for use in compression ignition engines. Fischer-Tropsh (F-T) technology can be used to produce fuels of consistent quality from a wide range of feed stocks. The present study evaluates the performance of F-T fuel in advanced common rail fuel injection systems. Laboratory scale tests are combined with proprietary engine and electrically driven common rail pump hydraulic rig tests to predict long-term performance. The results obtained indicate that the performance of F-T fuel is at least comparable to conventional hydrocarbon fuels and superior in a number of areas. In particular, the lubricity of F-T fuel was improved by addition of lubricity additives or FAME, with minimal wear under a wide range of operating conditions and temperatures. No deposits or lacquer was produced on fuel injection system components; even under relatively severe operating conditions.
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The Impact of Gasoline Octane on Fuel Economy in Modern Vehicles

Shell Global Solutions U.K.-Christopher Beck, Paul Stevenson, Pauline Ziman
Published 2006-10-16 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents recently derived relationships between gasoline octane quality and vehicle fuel economy measured on a chassis dynamometer. Data are reported from a number of vehicle types, which include both port injection and direct injection technologies. Fuel economy was measured over a fixed test cycle on a matrix of ten fuels. Hence we established an engine/vehicle response to changes in gasoline octane number, in terms of fuel economy. This is comparable with previously reported relationships between gasoline octane quality and engine power output. Finally, fuel economy was measured over a number of industry-standard test cycles, when retail fuels of different octane grade were tested in vehicles. Statistically significant changes in vehicle fuel economy were measured for vehicles that ran on different fuel grades.For over 40 years the octane number of gasoline has been defined by measurements of RON (Research Octane Number) and MON (Motor Octane Number), made in a CFR (Cooperative Fuel Research) engine. Conventional wisdom acknowledges a direct and positive relationship between octane quality and potential engine performance; for example, in modern knockā€¦
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Silicon Microstructures: Merging Mechanics with Electronics

Ford Motor Co.-Margherita Zanini, Paul Stevenson
Published 1992-02-01 by SAE International in United States
We review the advantages of silicon micromachining in manufacturing low-cost, high-volume, mechanical sensors. The characteristics of the technology are discussed and contrasted with those of typical milling operations. We describe the fabrication of simple mechanical elements to explain how micromachined parts can be manufactured in large numbers with a high degree of dimensional control. These parts are the key components of cost-effective, high performance pressure, flow, and acceleration sensors that are gradually penetrating the automotive market.
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