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Study of simple detection of gasoline fuel contaminants contributing to increase Particulate Matter Emissions

IFP Energies Nouvelles-Arij Ben Amara, Marion Lacoue-Negre, David Goncalves, Melinda Tebib, Isabelle Leveque, Vincent Souchon, Mickael Matrat, Laurie Starck
Toyota Motor Corp.-Yutaka Iida, Takashi Nomura
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0384
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The reduction of particulate emissions is one of the most important challenges facing the development of future gasoline engines. Several studies have demonstrated the impact of fuel chemical composition on the emissions of particulate matter, more particularly, the detrimental effect of high boiling point components such as heavy aromatics. Fuel contamination is likely to become a critical issue as new, more stringent regulations such as Real Driving Emissions RDE with market fuel. The objective of this study is to investigate several experimental approaches to detect the presence of Diesel fuel in Gasoline which is likely to alter pollutant emissions. To achieve this, a fuel matrix composed of 14 fuels was built presenting diesel fuel in varying concentrations from 0.1 to 2% v/v. The fuel matrix was characterized using several original techniques developed in this study. These are Near Infrared spectroscopy (NIR) associated to Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Square (PLS) modelling, micro-filtration. Their capacity to identify diesel fuel was compared to standard methods, such as, distillation, washed and unwashed gums, high boiling components…
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Using RON Synergistic Effects to Formulate Fuels for Better Fuel Economy and Lower CO2 Emissions

ICARE-CNRS, INSIS-Andrea Comandini, Nabiha Chaumeix
IFP Energies nouvelles-David Serrano, Laurie Starck
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2155
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The knock resistance of gasoline is a key factor to decrease the specific fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of modern turbocharged spark ignition engines. For this purpose, high RON and octane sensitivity (S) are needed.This study shows a relevant synergistic effect on RON and S when formulating a fuel with isooctane, cyclopentane and aromatics, the mixtures reaching RON levels well beyond the ones of individual components. The same is observed when measuring their knock resistance on a boosted single cylinder engine.The mixtures were also characterized on a rapid compression machine at 700 K and 850 K, a shock tube at 1000 K, an instrumented and an adapted CFR engine. The components responsible for the synergistic effects are thus identified. Furthermore, the correlations plotted between these experiments results disclose our current understanding on the origin of these synergistic effects.This study concludes that this synergistic effect encourages formulating highly paraffinic fuels for lower specific fuel consumptions and CO2 emissions. Thus, paraffins are still relevant compounds to formulate highly efficient gasolines, despite their low octane sensitivity when individually…
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Impact of Ethanol and Aromatic Hydrocarbons on Particulate Emissions from a Gasoline Vehicle

IFP Energies Nouvelles, France-Toni Tahtouh, Arij Ben Amara, Patricia Anselmi, Laurie Starck
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The impact of transport on global and local pollution has resulted in stricter emission limits. More specifically, increasing attention is being paid to exhaust gas particulate emissions in spark ignition engines. The particulate formation is mainly affected by: 1-engine and fuel system characteristics, 2-fuel properties and 3-exhaust aftertreatment system. In order to estimate the influence of fuel characteristics on particulate emissions, several research works have proposed fuel indices that correlate some of the fuel physical and chemical properties with engine particulate emissions.This work investigates the impact of fuel composition on particulate emissions and evaluates the Honda Particulate Matter Index (PMI) proposed by Aikawa et al. and other fuel indices in terms of agreement with vehicle test bed results for a passenger car.Vehicle tests were performed on New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC) by using an E10 Euro VI reference fuel and five different fuel blends with 10% to 20% of ethanol and 23% to 35% of aromatic hydrocarbons content by volume. The effect of aromatic hydrocarbons composition on…
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Are Internal Diesel Injector Deposits (IDID) Mainly Linked to Biofuel Chemical Composition or/and Engine Operation Condition?

IFP Energies Nouvelles, Institute Carnot-Maira Alves Fortunato, Francis Lenglet, Arij Ben Amara, Laurie Starck
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
The increased use of alternative fuels has been linked to performance deterioration of injectors and engines as a result of internal diesel injector deposits (IDID). The present paper investigates fuel composition impact on injector tendency to blockage. Three main areas were investigated : (1) deposits linked to paraffins and aromatics content; (2) deposits linked to biodiesel composition using fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and hydrotreated vegetal oil (HVO); and (3) deposits linked to the presence of additives (Dodecenylsuccinic anhydride DDSA, Dodecenyl Succinimid DDSI and Sodium Naphthenate). A deposit formation method was developed for the injection bench in order to discriminate the impact of fuels on system performance in terms of fuel volume injected, injection duration and stability. Three operation conditions were tested to represent low, intermediate and high load. In addition, the influence of soaking time and injector heating temperature was evaluated. The nature of the deposit was studied based on its morphology and chemical composition determined using Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) Spectroscopy. Deposits were observed for all fuels, even…
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Critical Analysis of PM Index and Other Fuel Indices: Impact of Gasoline Fuel Volatility and Chemical Composition

IFP Energies Nouvelles, Institut Carnot IFPEN TE-Arij Ben Amara, Toni Tahtouh, Elisabeth Ubrich, Laurie Starck
Toyota Motor Corp.-Hidenori Moriya, Yutaka IIda, Nagata KOJI
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Among the challenges for the future facing the development of gasoline engines, one of the most important is the reduction of particles emissions. This study proposes a critical and objective evaluation of the influence of fuel characteristics on gasoline particles emission through the use of Fuel Particle Indices. For this, a selected fuel matrix composed of 22 fuels was built presenting different volatility and chemical composition (content in total aromatics, heavy cuts and ethanol). To represent the fuel sooting tendency, seven Fuel Particle Indices were selected based on a literature review, namely, Particulate Matter Index (PMI), Particulate Number index (PNI), Threshold Sooting index (TSI), Smoke point (SP), Oxygen Extended Sooting Index (OESI), Simplified index 1 and 2 (sPMI 1, sPMI 2). These indices were computed on the fuel matrix and compared on the basis of three main axes. First, the sensitivity to fuel variation. Second, the agreement with engine particles emissions measured on vehicle on three vehicles. Third, the ease to compute with respect to the data availability in the European standard EN228. The comparison…
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Impact of PME Over Crystals Formation and Rig Test Performances Degradation

IFP Energies nouvelles, Institut Carnot IFPEN TE-Maira Alves Fortunato, Aurelie Mouret, Chrsitine Dalmazzone, Laurie Starck
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
The use of biodiesel has risen worldwide in the last decade. Different countries use different biodiesel feedstocks which will depend on the resources available locally. Some problems due to biodiesel content and feedstock quality have been pointed out in the literature, which include cold flow properties issues of several methyl esters, especially Palm Methyl Ester (PME). The present work was carried out on diesel-biodiesel blends from 0 to 30%v/vPME in order to evaluate the impact of crystals formation on fuel filter plugging using a rig test. The fuel was maintained at 5°C and 20°C during soaking. The crystal particles formation was evaluated by the Turbiscan™ technique (based on multiple light scattering with near infra-red light), followed by particles mass weight determination by filtration. The fuel was then evaluated in the test rig until performances degradation in terms of fuel flow rate and filter pressure drop. Results show particles formation and aggregation during soaking. Also, the rig test has pointed out a fuel flow rate decrease at low load engine conditions.
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Oxidation Stability of Diesel-Biodiesel Blends: Impact of Physical-Chemical Properties Over Ageing into Fuel Injection Systems (FIS) and Storage

IFP Energies nouvelles, Institut Carnot IFPEN TE-Maira Alves Fortunato, Laurie Starck
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
The increased use of alternative fuels has been linked to deterioration in performance of fuel injection systems as a result of insoluble deposit formation. Here, the impact of Diesel/biodiesel blends formulation and temperature on the oxidation stability was studied based on total acid number (TAN), density, viscosity and surface tension. We have compared fuel oxidation during storage with fuel oxidation into the fuel injection system (FIS) and determined the most important physical-chemical parameters that could be used to follow fuel oxidation on-board. Based on the results obtained, a satisfactory correlation between storage oxidation and fuel on-board degradation was observed. Biodiesel fuel tends to deteriorate during delivery and storage before refueling. Also, fuel ageing on-board is equivalent to 4-5months of storage which means Biodiesel has impact on fuel injection system with long-term storage/parking after high or high-low alternating load operation.
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Oxidation Stability of Diesel/Biodiesel Blends: Impact of Fuels Physical-Chemical Properties over Ageing During Storage and Accelerated Oxidation

IFP Energies Nouvelles-Maira Alves Fortunato, Laurie Starck
Toyota Motor Corporation-Takuya Takahashi, Kazuhiro Ohmae, Yutaka IIda
Published 2015-09-01 by SAE International in United States
Current and future engine technologies and fuels are mutually dependent. The increased use of alternative fuels has been linked to deterioration in performance of injectors, fuel filters and engines as a result of insoluble deposit formation. The present work aimed to study the impact of Diesel/biodiesel blends formulation (biodiesel feedstock and content) and temperature on the oxidation stability based on total acid number (TAN). The biofuels used in the fuel matrix were: rapeseed, soy and palm methyl esters (RME, SME and PME respectively). The Diesel/biodiesel blends were made with 0%v/v, 5%v/v, 10% v/v and 20%v/v of biodiesel blended with additive-free new Diesel.The oxidation stability of Diesel/biodiesel blends was to evaluate during 6 months fuels storage, under 20°C and 40°C, and fuels severe oxidation into a reactor vessel to better understand the parameters leading to fuel oxidation on-board. Considering the results of fuel oxidation, it is possible to assume that at 20°C FA ME can be used safely up to 20%v/v regardless of the feedstock type, at 40°C condition SME and RME can be used safely…
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Selection of the Most Promising Alternative Fuels for Aircraft Development: ALFA-BIRD Proposal

Airbus-Yohan Allouche
IFP Energies Nouvelles-Ludivine Pidol, Laurie Starck, Nicolas Jeuland
Published 2011-10-18 by SAE International in United States
Air traffic has been steadily increasing for the last years. Moreover, fuel availability at a reasonable cost seems more and more uncertain. Climate change implies that greenhouse gases emissions should be reduced. In this context, the search for new alternative fuels for aircraft seems to be a promising solution.Nevertheless, aeronautic represents a very specific transportation mode, due to its usage (short range, middle range, long range with the same fuel, worldwide distribution of the fuel…) and its compulsory security constraints.In the first part of the European project ALFA-BIRD (Alternative Fuels and Biofuels for Aircraft development - FP7), a selection of the best candidates to become the fuels for the future of aircraft has been done. The selection process was very complex, due to multiple criteria (physical properties, economical issued, environmental issues…). A first matrix of 12 blends has been defined including: FSJF (Fully Synthetic Jet Fuel), FT-SPK (Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene), Naphthenic cut, HVO (Hydrotreated Vegetable Oils), hexanol, furane and FAE (Fatty Acid Esters) in different amounts.The FSJF consists of 50% FT-SPK and 50% of…
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