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α-Pinene - A High Energy Density Biofuel for SI Engine Applications

Vedharaj Sivasankaralingam, Robert Dibble, S. Mani Sarathy
KAUST-Vallinayagam Raman
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
This study proposes a novel biofuel for spark ignition (SI) engine, α-pinene (C10H16), which is non-oxygenated and thus has a gravimetric energy density comparable to that of hydrocarbon fuels. The ignition characteristics of α-pinene were evaluated in an ignition quality tester (IQT) under standard temperature and pressure conditions. The measured ignition delay time (IDT) of α-pinene is 10.5 ms, which is lower than that of iso-octane, 17.9 ms. The estimated research octane number (RON) for pinene from IQT is 85. A temperature sweep in IQT showed that that α-pinene is less reactive at low temperatures, but more reactive at high temperatures when compared to isooctane. These results suggest that α-pinene has high octane sensitivity (OS) and is suitable for operation in turbocharged SI engines.With these considerations, α-pinene was operated in a single cylinder SI engine. The engine combustion characteristics of α-pinene are compared with FACE A gasoline (RON = 85), Euro V gasoline (RON = 97) and ethanol (RON = 109). The experimental investigation reveals that the spark timing and start of combustion for α-pinene…
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Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Ethanol/Diethyl Ether Mixtures in a CI Engine

KAUST-Vedharaj Sivasankaralingam, Vallinayagam Raman, Mohammed Jaasim Mubarak Ali, Adamu Alfazazi, Hong Im, S. Mani Sarathy, Robert Dibble
Univ of Connecticut-Tianfeng Lu
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
The auto-ignition characteristics of diethyl ether (DEE)/ethanol mixtures are investigated in compression ignition (CI) engines both numerically and experimentally. While DEE has a higher derived cetane number (DCN) of 139, ethanol exhibits poor ignition characteristics with a DCN of 8. DEE was used as an ignition promoter for the operation of ethanol in a CI engine. Mixtures of DEE and ethanol (DE), i.e., DE75 (75% DEE + 25% ethanol), DE50 (50% DEE + 50% ethanol) and DE25 (25% DEE + 75% ethanol), were tested in a CI engine. While DE75 and DE50 auto-ignited at an inlet air pressure of 1.5 bar, DE25 failed to auto-ignite even at boosted pressure of 2 bar. The peak in-cylinder pressure for diesel and DE75 were comparable, while DE50 showed reduced peak in-cylinder pressure with delayed start of combustion (SOC). Numerical simulations were conducted to study the engine combustion characteristics of DE mixture. A comprehensive detailed chemical kinetic model was created to represent the combustion of DE mixtures. The detailed mechanism was then reduced using standard direct relation graph (DRG-X)…
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