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Sholes, Kevin R.
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Crank-angle-resolved Measurements of Air-fuel Ratio, Temperature, and Liquid Fuel Droplet Scattering in a Direct-injection Gasoline Engine

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Kevin R. Sholes, Kiyotaka Shouji, Tomohiro Chaya
Stanford University-Jay B. Jeffries, Jason M. Porter, Sung Hyun Pyun, Ronald K. Hanson
Published 2010-10-25 by SAE International in United States
Simultaneous crank-angle-resolved measurements of gasoline vapor concentration, gas temperature, and liquid fuel droplet scattering were made with three-color infrared absorption in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine with premium gasoline. The infrared light was coupled into and out of the cylinder using fiber optics incorporated into a modified spark plug, allowing measurement at a location adjacent to the spark plug electrode. Two mid-infrared (mid-IR) laser wavelengths were simultaneously produced by difference-frequency-generation in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) using one signal and two pump lasers operating in the near-infrared (near-IR). A portion of the near-IR signal laser residual provided a simultaneous third, non-resonant, wavelength for liquid droplet detection. This non-resonant signal was used to subtract the influence of droplet scattering from the resonant mid-IR signals to obtain vapor absorption signals in the presence of droplet extinction.The sensor was applied to a direct-injection engine in both early-injection homogeneous charge and late-injection stratified charge operation. For the early-injection cases, liquid droplets were detected only during a brief period of the intake stroke just after start of injection. Late in the…
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An In-cylinder Laser Absorption Sensor for Crank-angle-resolved Measurements of Gasoline Concentration and Temperature

SAE International Journal of Engines

Nissan Motor Co Ltd-Kevin R. Sholes, Kiyotaka Shouji, Tomohiro Chaya
Stanford Univ.-Jay B. Jeffries, Jason M. Porter, Sung Hung Pyun, Ronald K. Hanson
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-2251
Published 2010-10-25 by SAE International in United States
Simultaneous crank-angle-resolved measurements of gasoline concentration and gas temperature were made with two-color mid-infrared (mid-IR) laser absorption in a production spark-ignition engine (Nissan MR20DE, 2.0L, 4 cyl, MPI with premium gasoline). The mid-IR light was coupled into and out of the cylinder using fiber optics incorporated into a modified spark plug. The absorption line-of-sight was a 5.3 mm optical path located closely adjacent to the ignition spark providing spatially resolved absorption. Two sensor wavelengths were selected in the strong bands associated with the carbon-hydrogen (C-H) stretching vibration near 3.4 μm, which have an absorption ratio that is strongly temperature dependent. Fuel concentration and temperature were determined simultaneously from the absorption at these two wavelengths. The two mid-IR laser wavelengths were simultaneously produced by difference-frequency-generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal using one signal and two pump lasers. The pump lasers were modulated at different frequencies allowing frequency demultiplexing of the laser light transmitted though the spark plug probe, providing simultaneous absorption signals at the two mid-IR wavelengths. A model of the absorption cross…
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Simultaneous Measurement of In-Cylinder Temperature and Residual Gas Concentration in the Vicinity of the Spark Plug by Wavelength Modulation Infrared Absorption

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Akihiko Kakuho, Kevin R. Sholes, Yutaka Hashizume, Shohei Takatani, Tomonori Urushihara
Physical Science Inc.-Mark G. Allen
Published 2007-04-16 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a new measurement technique for in-cylinder gas temperature and residual gas concentration during the compression stroke of an internal combustion (IC) engine. This technique is based on the infrared absorption of water vapor by a wavelength modulated laser. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second harmonic detection (WMS-2f) was adopted to enable the short-path measurements over a wide range of temperatures and pressures corresponding to the late compression stroke in a typical automotive engine. The WMS-2f signal is detected through a bandpass filter at a width of 7.5 kHz, enabling crank angle-resolved measurements. The temperature is determined from the ratio of optical absorption for two overtone transitions of water vapor in the intake gas mixture, and the H2O concentration is determined from this inferred temperature and the absorption for one of the transitions. The measurements sample a short-path region (5 mm) of the in-cylinder gases near the spark plug, which has been modified to provide optical access. Crank angle-resolved measurements are performed in a mass-production type engine.
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Simultaneous Measurement of In-Cylinder Temperature and Residual Gas Concentration in the Vicinity of the Spark Plug by Wavelength Modulation Infrared Absorption

Nissan Motor-Akihiko Kakuho, Kevin R. Sholes, Yutaka Hashizume, Tomonori Urushihara
Nissan Research & Development Inc.-Shohei Takatani
  • Technical Paper
  • 2006-08-0435
Published 2006-09-27 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
This paper presents a new measurement technique for in-cylinder gas temperature and residual gas concentration during the compression stroke of an internal combustion (IC) engine. This technique is based on the infrared absorption of water vapor by a wavelength-modulated laser. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second harmonic detection (WMS-2f) was adopted to enable the short-path measurements over a wide range of temperatures and pressures corresponding to the late compression stroke in a typical automotive engine. The WMS-2f signal is detected through a bandpass filter at a width of 7.5 kHz enabling crank angle-resolved measurements. The temperature is determined from the ratio of optical absorption for two overtone transitions of water vapor in the intake gas mixture and the H2O concentration is determined from this inferred temperature and the absorption for one of the transitions. The measurements sample a short-path region (5 mm) of the in-cylinder gases near the spark plug, which has been modified to provide optical access. Crank angle-resolved measurements are performed in a mass-production-type engine.
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Analysis of In-Cylinder Gas Flow and Its Cyclic Variability Using PIV

Kevin R. Sholes, Junichi Kawashima, Shinzou Mori
  • Technical Paper
  • 2004-08-0524
Published 2004-10-27 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The velocity distribution of in-cylinder cross-sections of a single-cylinder visualization engine were measured using PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry). Measurement errors due to distortion caused by imaging through the optical cylinder were analyzed quantitatively and a calibration method was developed to correct for the distortion. Then, the effect of various tumble control valve configurations on in- cylinder gas flow cyclic stability was investigated. Analysis revealed that while the cyclic variation of tumble ratio is small, the local velocity variations are as large as the spatially averaged mean velocity.
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Study of the Effect of Boiling Point on Combustion and PM Emissions in a Compression Ignition Engine Using Two-Component n-Paraffin Fuels

National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory-Kevin R. Sholes, Matsuo Odaka, Yuichi Goto, Hajime Ishii, Hisakazu Suzuki
Published 2002-03-04 by SAE International in United States
Fuel composition is investigated as a parameter influencing fuel/air mixing of direct injected fuel and the subsequent consequences for particulate emissions. Presumably, enhanced mixing prior to ignition results in a larger portion of fuel burning as a premixture and a smaller portion of diffusion burning around fuel-rich regions. This would potentially lower particulate emissions without overly compromising hydrocarbon emissions or high load operation. Using mixtures of n-paraffin fuels, particulate emissions were measured and the results were compared with in-cylinder visualization of the injection process and two-color method calculations of flame temperature. In general, lower boiling point fuels exhibited higher flame temperatures, less visible flame, and lower particulate emissions.
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