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Determine 24 GHz and 77 GHz Radar Characteristics of Surrogate Grass

Indiana University; Purdue University-Jun Lin, Stanley Chien, Qiang Yi, Yaobin Chen
Ohio State University-Chi-Chih Chen
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Road Departure Mitigation System (RDMS) is a new feature in vehicle active safety systems. It may not rely only on the lane marking for road edge detection, but other roadside objects This paper discusses the radar aspect of the RDMS testing on roads with grass road edges. Since the grass color may be different at different test sites and in different seasons, testing of RDMS with real grass road edge has the repeatability issue over time and locations. A solution is to develop surrogate grass that has the same characteristics of the representative real grass. Radar can be used in RDMS to identify road edges. The surrogate grass should be similar to representative real grass in color, LIDAR characteristics, and Radar characteristics. This paper provides the 24 GHz and 77 GHz radar characteristic specifications of surrogate grass.
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Has Electronic Stability Control Reduced Rollover Crashes?

Toyota Motor Corp.-Rini Sherony
Virginia Tech-Luke Riexinger, Hampton Gabler
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle rollovers are one of the more severe crash modes in the US - accounting for 32% of all passenger vehicle occupant fatalities annually. One design enhancement to help prevent rollovers is Electronic Stability Control (ESC) which can reduce loss of control and thus has great promise to enhance vehicle safety. The objectives of this research were (1) to estimate the effectiveness of ESC in reducing the number of rollover crashes and (2) to identify cases in which ESC did not prevent the rollover to potentially advance additional ESC development.All passenger vehicles and light trucks and vans that experienced a rollover from 2006 to 2015 in the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Database System (NASS/CDS) were analyzed. Each rollover was assigned a crash scenario based on the crash type, pre-crash maneuver, and pre-crash events. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety ESC availability database was matched to each NASS/CDS case vehicle by the vehicle make, model, and model year. ESC effectiveness was computed using the quasi-induced exposure method.From 2006-2015, control loss was a factor in 29.7%…
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Color and Height Characteristics of Surrogate Grass for the Evaluation of Vehicle Road Departure Mitigation Systems

Indiana University; Purdue University-Qiang Yi, Dan Shen, Jun Lin, Stanley Chien, Lingxi Li, Yaobin Chen
Toyota Motor Corp.-Rini Sherony
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In recent years Road Departure Mitigation Systems (RDMS) is introduced to the market for avoiding roadway departure collisions. To support the performance testing of the RDMS, the most commonly seen road edge, grass, is studied in this paper for the development of standard surrogate grass. This paper proposes a method for defining the resembling grass color and height features due to significant variations of grass appearances in different seasons, temperatures and environments. Randomly selected Google Street View images with grass road edges are gathered and analyzed. Image processing techniques are deployed to obtain the grass color distributions. The height of the grass is determined by referencing the gathered images with measured grass heights. The representative colors and heights of grass are derived as the specifications of surrogate grass for the standard evaluation of RDMS.
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Infrared Reflectance Requirements of the Surrogate Grass from Various Viewing Angles

Indiana University; Purdue University-Dan Shen, Lin Li, Abir Saha, Stanley Chien, Qiang Yi
Toyota Motor North America-Rini Sherony
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
To minimize the risk of run-off-road collision, new technology in Advanced Driver Assistive System (ADAS), called Road Departure Mitigation Systems (RDMS), is being introduced recently. Most of the RDMS rely on clear lane markings to detect road departure events using the camera for decision-making and control actions. However, many roadsides do not have lane markings or clear lane markings, especially in some rural and residential areas. The absence of lane markings forces RDMS to observe roadside objects and road edge and use them as a reference to determine whether a roadway departure incident is happening or not. To support and guide for developing and evaluating RDMS, a testing environment with representative road edges needs to be established. Since the grass road edge is the most common in the US, the grass road edge should be included in a testing environment. This paper studied the spectral features of various kinds of grasses as well as determined the reflectance range of these grass types in different measurement conditions with LiDAR. The long-term goal of this research was…
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Long-Term Evolution of Straight Crossing Path Crash Occurrence in the U.S. Fleet: The Potential of Intersection Active Safety Systems

Toyota Motor Corp.-Rini Sherony
Virginia Tech-Max Bareiss, H. Gabler
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Intersection collisions currently account for approximately one-fifth of all crashes and one-sixth of all fatal crashes in the United States. One promising method of mitigating these crashes and fatalities is to develop and install Intersection Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (I-ADAS) on vehicles. When an intersection crash is imminent, the I-ADAS system can either warn the driver or apply automated braking. The potential safety benefit of I-ADAS has been previously examined based on real-world cases drawn from the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS). However, these studies made the idealized assumption of full installation in all vehicles of a future fleet. The objective of this work was to predict the reduction in Straight Crossing Path (SCP) crashes due to I-ADAS systems in the United States over time. The proportion of new vehicles with I-ADAS was modeled using Highway Loss Data Institute (HLDI) fleet penetration predictions. The number of potential SCP conflicts was modeled as increasing year over year due to a predicted increase in Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) each year. Finally, the combined effect of…
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The Color Specification of Surrogate Roadside Objects for the Performance Evaluation of Roadway Departure Mitigation Systems

Indiana University, Purdue University-Qiang Yi, Dan Shen, Jun Lin, Stanley Chien
Toyota Motor Corp.-Rini Sherony
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Roadway departure mitigation systems for helping to avoid and/or mitigate roadway departure collisions have been introduced by several vehicle manufactures in recent years. To support the development and performance evaluation of the roadway departure mitigation systems, a set of commonly seen roadside surrogate objects need to be developed. These objects include grass, curbs, metal guardrail, concrete divider, and traffic barrel/cones. This paper describes how to determine the representative color of these roadside surrogates. 24,762 locations with Google street view images were selected for the color determination of roadside objects. To mitigate the effect of the brightness to the color determination, the images not in good weather, not in bright daylight and under shade were manually eliminated. Then, the RGB values of the roadside objects in the remaining images were extracted. To obtain the representative color of the roadside objects, the K-means clustering algorithm was applied to find the color clusters of each type of roadside objects in the modified CIE LUV color space. The Silhouette index was applied to determine the optimal number of clusters.…
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Roadside Boundaries and Objects for the Development of Vehicle Road Keeping Assistance System

Indiana University, Purdue University-Dan Shen, Qiang Yi, Jun Lin, Renran Tian, Stanley Chien
Toyota Motor North America Inc.-Rini Sherony
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Road departure is a leading cause of fatal crashes in the US and half of all the crashes are related to road departure [1]. Road departure warning (RDW) and road keeping assistance (RKA) are the new active safety areas to be explored. Most of the currently available road-departure detection technologies rely on the detection of lane markings, which are either missing or unclear in many roads. Therefore, in additional to the these lane markings, next-generation road departure detection should rely on the detection of other road edge and boundary objects. Common road edge and boundary indicators include lane marking, grass, curb, metal guardrail, concrete divider, traffic barrels and cones. This paper investigates the distribution of major types of road edges and road boundaries in the United States in order to enhance and evaluate the capabilities and effectiveness of RDW and RKA. The paper describes the road location sample used for the analysis, presents the percentage of various types roadside objects in terms of number of appearance locations, percentage miles (%miles), and percentage car-miles (%car-miles = %miles*car_density). The…
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Estimating Benefits of LDW Systems Applied to Cross-Centerline Crashes

Toyota Motor Corp-Rini Sherony
Virginia Tech-David Holmes, H. Gabler
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Objective:Opposite-direction crashes can be extremely severe because opposing vehicles often have high relative speeds. The most common opposite direction crash scenario occurs when a driver departs their lane driving over the centerline and impacts a vehicle traveling in the opposite direction. This cross-centerline crash mode accounts for only 4% of all non-junction non-interchange crashes but 25% of serious injury crashes of the same type. One potential solution to this problem is the Lane Departure Warning (LDW) system which can monitor the position of the vehicle and provide a warning to the driver if they detect the vehicle is moving out of the lane. The objective of this study was to determine the potential benefits of deploying LDW systems fleet-wide for avoidance of cross-centerline crashes.Methods:In order to estimate the potential benefits of LDW for reduction of cross-centerline crashes, a comprehensive crash simulation model was developed. The basis for the model were the records of 42 crashes extracted from the National Motor Vehicles Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS) database corresponding to 19,467 crashes nationwide. Each crash was simulated…
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Methodology for Estimating the Benefits of Lane Departure Warnings using Event Data Recorders

Toyota Motor North America Inc.-Rini Sherony
Virginia Tech-Luke E. Riexinger, Hampton C. Gabler
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Road departures are one of the most deadly crash modes, accounting for nearly one third of all crash fatalities in the US. Lane departure warning (LDW) systems can warn the driver of the departure and lane departure prevention (LDP) systems can steer the vehicle back into the lane. One purpose of these systems is to reduce the quantity of road departure crashes. This paper presents a method to predict the maximum effectiveness of these systems. Thirty-nine (39) real world crashes from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) Crashworthiness Data System (CDS) database were reconstructed using pre-crash velocities downloaded for each case from the vehicle event data recorder (EDR). The pre-crash velocities were mapped onto the vehicle crash trajectory. The simulations assumed a warning was delivered when the lead tire crossed the lane line. Each case was simulated twice with driver reaction times of 0.38 s and 1.36 s after which time the driver began steering back toward the road. In addition, each case was simulated a third time, assuming it was equipped with LDP, which removed the…
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In-Vehicle Occupant Head Tracking Using aLow-Cost Depth Camera

Toyota Motor North America Inc.-Jason Hallman, Rini Sherony
UMTRI-Byoung-Keon Daniel Park
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Analyzing dynamic postures of vehicle occupants in various situations is valuable for improving occupant accommodation and safety. Accurate tracking of an occupant’s head is of particular importance because the head has a large range of motion, controls gaze, and may require special protection in dynamic events including crashes. Previous vehicle occupant posture studies have primarily used marker-based optical motion capture systems or multiple video cameras for tracking facial features or markers on the head. However, the former approach has limitations for collecting on-road data, and the latter is limited by requiring intensive manual postprocessing to obtain suitable accuracy. This paper presents an automated on-road head tracking method using a single Microsoft Kinect V2 sensor, which uses a time-of-flight measurement principle to obtain a 3D point cloud representing objects in the scene at approximately 30 Hz. Vehicle passenger motions were recorded during hard braking and rapid lane changes. The dynamic head orientation and location data were obtained by fitting a subject-specific 3d head model to the depth data from each frame. Results were validated using a marker-based…
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