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Study of Hydraulic Steering Process for Intelligent Autonomous Articulated Vehicle

University of Science & Technology of China-Tao xu, Yanhua Shen, Jincheng Xie, Wenming Zhang
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Intelligent autonomous articulated vehicles (IAAVs), the most important transportations of intelligent mining system, are the future direction of mining industry. Though it could realize the unmanned drive, without supports of hydraulic steering process analyses and vehicle dynamic researches, there are no references for the IAAVs to adjust the steering angle in certain driving error. It still has to check the signal from the angle sensor repeatedly to track the planned path in the working process, which lead to the low control accuracy. In this paper, the theories of hydraulic steering process and vehicle model will be developed for the vehicle intelligent control with the analyses of road and tire characteristics based on the principle of least resistance. With the vehicle model, the relationships between steering wheel angle and vehicle steering angle, the motion trajectory, the force of tire, and steering system will be conducted, which are the most important reference for the path planning and tracking of IAAVs. Meanwhile, some problems that produce motion fluctuation are performed. Under these discussions of control problems and steering…
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Robust Path Tracking Control for Autonomous Heavy Vehicles

Ohio State University-Haoan Wang, Levent Guvenc
Univ. of Sci. & Tech. Beijing-Yu Gao, Yanhua Shen, Wenming Zhang
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
With high maneuverability and heavy-duty load capacity, articulated steer vehicles (ASV) are widely used in construction, forestry and mining sectors. However, the steering process of ASV is much different from wheeled steer vehicles and tractor-trailer vehicles. Unsuitable steering control in path following could easily give rise to the “snaking” behaviour, which greatly reduces the safety and stability of ASV. In order to achieve precise control for ASV, a novel path tracking control method is proposed by virtual terrain field (VTF) method. A virtual U-shaped terrain field is assumed to exist along the reference path. The virtual terrain altitude depends on the lateral error, heading error, preview distance and road curvature. If the vehicle deviates from the reference line, it will be pulled back to the lowest position under the influence of additional lateral tire forces which are caused by the virtual banked road. By converting the lateral tire forces to the controlled steering wheel angle, the path following control based on VTF method can be realized. The influence of sideslip angle is considered during curved…
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Wear Modeling and Prediction of Off-road Dump Truck Body based on Stochastic Differential Equation

University of Science and Technology Beijing-Fulin Wei, Yanhua Shen, Tao Xu
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Off-road dump truck body is exposed to abrasive wear during handling of granular materials. The wear rate of body of dump truck has direct influence on maintenance and replacement during its service process. In this paper the discrete element method (DEM) is used to simulate the granular materials of dump truck. The wear of body floor during one dumping process can be achieved by cosimulation of FEM-DEM. The wear depth variation of body has the stochastic characteristic which can be modeled by Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM). The two parameters in the stochastic differential equation, drift coefficient and diffusion coefficient, can be estimated by the wear depth measuring data. It is possible to quantitatively predict the wear evolution of every grid point of the body floor by solving this stochastic differential equation. The simulation result of the wear model is helpful to optimize design of off-road dump truck body.
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In-Situ Steering Dynamics Analysis of Skid Steering for Articulated Motor-Driven Vehicle

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

University of Science and Technology Beijing-Tao Xu, Yanhua Shen, Wenming Zhang
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1646
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
The traditional hydraulic steering mode in articulated motor-driven vehicle makes the vehicle structure complex. Further more, the forces between the front and rear part of the articulated vehicle could damage the articulated joint body in the process of vehicle steering. However, skid steering mode could make the vehicle steer with the different speed of each wheel, which is flexible without hydraulic steering system. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the principle of skid steering mode in articulated motor-driven vehicle. In this paper, the theory of traditional wheeled vehicle’s skid-steering mode and hydraulic steering mode of articulated vehicle are used to establish the in-situ skid-steering kinematic and dynamic model. Based on the model, the vehicle trajectory and the dynamic relationships among the body structure of the vehicle, longitudinal forces, lateral forces of each wheel are described. With these analyses, the kinematic and dynamic simulations are implemented according to the parameters of an underground mine articulated vehicle, which could provide references for the designing and studying of articulated motor-driven vehicle with skid steering mode.
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Water Cooling System Analysis of Permanent Magnet Traction Motor of Mining Electric-Drive Dump Truck

University of Science & Technology-Yanhua Shen, Chun Jin
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
The large power mining dump truck usually has electric drive system for the harsh operating conditions of mining. The traction motor and multi-stage reducer are assembled in the limited space of the two rear wheels. The permanent magnet motor is often used as traction motor for its much advantage characteristic. However, the permanent magnet is particularly sensitive to the high temperatures since it can loose a part of magnetization when it is exposed to a high temperature. It is necessary to have better cooling system for improvement thermal performance of permanent magnet (PM) motor. The heat losses generated by permanent magnet motor in the off-road electric driving truck are cooled by the water to maintain the motor working effectively. This paper is focus on analyzing the thermal behavior of the PM motor numerically and experimentally. The 2-D transient temperature field of motor is investigated based on different losses of the permanent magnet motor which is determined by the magnetic field analysis. The water cooling housings with different channel layout are compared with the synthetic evaluation…
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Design of Eye-cab of Dump Truck

Univ. of Science & Technology-Huang Xiaxu
Univ. of Science and Technology-Liu Yijun, Yanhua Shen
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
It is an important problem that people can drive with the comfortable posture while they maintain optimum vision field. For the design of dump truck cab, the traditional design is ‘bottom-up’, which based on the H point. However, ‘Design by H-point’ can not meet the requirement of posture and vision field at the same time, people would always adjust their driving posture to achieve the needs of vision. A method of ‘design by eye-point’ was proposed to satisfy comfortable seating posture and vision field, in which the eye point was taken as a reference point instead of the H point. An experiment on the dump truck cab was designed to collect sitting posture photos of 55 participants. According to these statistical data, the optimum eye point can be located, and the distribution types of human joint points were given. The mathematical expressions were derived to describe the relationships between human joint points and eye point. The positions of seat and other control devices in the cab can be located on the basis of optimum vision…
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Analysis of Articulated Dump Trucks Vibration and Rear Suspension Stiffness Sensitivity

Univ. of Science and Technology of Beijing-Xia xu Huang, Yanhua Shen, Wenming Zhang
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
This paper reports on an investigation of articulated dump trucks vibration analysis and rear suspension stiffness sensitivity analysis. Since the frame of the off-highway dump truck is integrated, the impact from the road surface against the rear wheel is transmitted to the cab directly through the hydro pneumatic suspension and the frame, and finally contributes to the ride comfort. Articulated dump trucks are different from rigid-frame off-highway dump trucks, with the frame divided into two parts and jointed by a hinge, which forms two degrees of freedom between the two parts. Compared with rigid-frame dump trucks, the impact from the road surface against the rear wheel of the articulated truck would not transmit directly to the cab through the frame for the attenuation effect of the hinge. This paper studies the truck mass centre vibration characteristic which shows the resonance frequency of the articulated dump truck. The excitation transmitted to the cab through different rear suspension spring stiffness has also been studied to obtain the impact on the cab vibration. A three-dimensional model of an…
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Optimized Design of the Cooling System for an Articulated Dump Truck's Electric Drive System

Department of Vehicle Engineering,USTB-Yan Zhang, Yanhua Shen, Wenming Zhang
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
The articulated dump truck with independent suspensions is driven by six AC motors and each wheel is driven by one motor. Cooling system is configured in every electric wheel. The motor is the main heating source in the electric drive system. Hence, the cooling of the motor will affect the reliability and power-density of the whole electric drive system. According to the actual working conditions, the heating calculation about the cooling system has been carried out during the design process. The design concept of embedding spiral-shaped flow path in the shell of the stator has been drawn. The cooling water could pass through the path and accomplish cooling outside the stator. In this paper, the FLUENT has been used for the 3-D numerical simulation of the cooling system. The temperature field distributions of the cooling water and the shell are obtained. To analyze the influence of the shell structure on the cooling effect, the iSIGHT has been used to accomplish the structural and thermal optimization. The simulation and optimization results show that the cooling water…
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