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48 V Diesel Hybrid - Advanced Powertrain Solution for Meeting Future Indian BS 6 Emission and CO2 Legislations

FEV Europe GmbH-Markus Ehrly
FEV Group GmbH-Thomas Körfer
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
The legislations on emission reduction is getting stringent everywhere in the world. India is following the same trend, with Government of India (GOI) declaring the nationwide implementation of BS 6 legislation by April 2020 and Real Driving Emission (RDE) Cycle relevant legislation by 2023. Additionally GOI is focusing on reduction of CO2 emissions by introduction of stringent fleet CO2 targets through CAFE regulation, making it mandatory for vehicle manufacturers to simultaneously work on gaseous emissions and CO2 emissions. Simultaneous NOx emission reduction and CO2 reduction measures are divergent in nature, but with a 48 V Diesel hybrid, this goal can be achieved.The study presented here involves arriving at the right future hybrid-powertrain layout for a Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) in the Indian scenario to meet the future BS 6 and CAFÉ legislations. Diesel engines dominate the current LCV and SUV segments in India and the same trend can be expected to continue in future. An existing SUV from the Indian market has been selected as a target base vehicle for this study. The base SUV…
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Bharat Stage-V Solutions for Agricultural Engines for India Market

FEV Europe GmbH-Maurice Smeets
FEV GmbH-Markus Schoenen, Stefano Ghetti
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
The Bharat Stage (CEV/Tractor) IV & V emission legislations will come into force in Oct 2020 & Apr 2024 respectively, posing a major engineering challenge in terms of system complexity, reliability, costs and development time. Solutions for the EU Stage-V NRMM legislation in Europe, from which the BS-V limits are derived, have been developed and are ready for implementation.To a certain extent these European solutions can be transferred to the Indian market. However, certain market-specific challenges are yet to be defined and addressed. In addition, a challenging timeline has to be considered for application of advanced technologies and processes during the product development. In this presentation, the emission roadmap will be introduced in the beginning, followed by a discussion of potential technology solutions on the engine itself as well as on the after treatment components. This includes boosting and fuel injection technologies as well as different exhaust gas recirculation methods. Diesel engine concepts like SCR/SCRF only or SCR/SCRF plus EGR solutions, will also be discussed in addition to advanced engine and after treatment models for…
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Low Cost EV Platform for Three Wheeler Electrification Development

FEV India Pvt Ltd-Ajith Kumaran, Sarah Ahmad, Raviteja Chanumolu, Gaurav Sadekar, Mohan Joshi, Vijay Sharma
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the FEV low cost EV platform intended to provide a modular and scalable platform for 2 and 3 wheelers that is robust and meets the desired performance characteristics. To enable this, we use a dedicated vehicle control unit (VCU) that is running FEV’s matured model library called PERSIST. The platform makes use of the inherent advantage of being a small scale vehicle that can be used with lower sized components or reduced set of components without compromising on safety. The electric vehicle platform will have modularly developed components and associated software and hardware with standardized interfaces. The electric power train includes support for standardized lithium ion batteries and a low cost vehicle control unit. This is required to not only safe guard the system overall but also be able to optimize the driving range, enhance drivability and to provide the driver with a more stable and secure interface for operating the vehicle. The expected rapid growth in the space demands that such platform based solutions are developed in order to cater to…
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NOx Model Calibration for BS VI Applications

FEV India Pvt Ltd-Chinmay Vivek Kulkarni, Devising Rathod, Vijay Sharma
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Challenging limits for NOx in BS VI emission legislation demand high performance conversion techniques. Exhaust after treatment systems such as Lean NOx Trap and selective catalytic reduction can provide effective reduction of Engine out NOx emissions. From the moment of engine start, these systems require reliable signal input of the NOx sensor. The efficient use of such DeNOx systems demands earliest possible activation of the upstream NOx sensor. However, attainment of the sensor dew point delays reliable measurements. Data collected from the emission test cycles, WLTC and NEDC indicates the unavailability of NOx sensor from the beginning of the test cycle. Hence, requirement of a NOx model is inevitable to estimate NOx emissions till sensor reaches its dew point. The scope of this paper is to elucidate the calibration process through which a robust estimation of the NOx emissions can be made in different engine modes along with varying ambient conditions. The NOx model is capable of estimating the real time NOx emission using a map based approach taking in to account multiple factors such…
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Technology to Achieve Engine Efficacy: Optimized Intake System

FEV India Pvt, Ltd.-Prashant Sharma, Aditya Pratap Singh, Vijay Sharma, Vivek Rai
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
In the era of sustainable engines where the need of high power, torque, engine life is increasing while eliminating BSFC and emission concerns, the variable length intake manifold system helps to provide optimized intake system. The research consists of adopting continuous variable length intake manifold on diesel engines where compression and suction waves provide better swirl and pressurization methodology. The continuous varying intake manifold helps to provide better volumetric efficiency by more than 100% as constructive waves provide improved swirling which leads to reducing detonation and better combustion. The manifold path changes with every range of rpm through operating butterfly valve, which also guides air intake path according to engine load. The air flow is increased at low rpm bypassing the intake air from the long and narrow path to increase low-speed torque. The top end power is increased at high rpm by passing intake air through short and long paths which supplies the great amount of air without any restriction. The variable length intake manifold reduces emission in the diesel engine as it provides…
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Optimized Electrification Solution for App-Based Taxis in Indian Cities

FEV India Pvt, Ltd.-Rohin Apte, Ashraf Emran, Vijay Sharma
VKA RWTH Aachen University-Ragupathi Soundara Rajan
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
The transportation needs in highly dense urban pockets is leading to high pollution islands in India. To address this issue, the emission legislations are becoming more stringent with an aim to reduce the emissions at national level. App based taxis are becoming lifeline for all major Indian cities. So far, these taxis are predominantly diesel powered compact cars. Thus, vehicle powertrain electrification is a good idea to improve local air quality in such urban pockets. While upgradation of internal combustion engines will add significant costs due to expensive exhaust after-treatment systems, electric motor driven taxis can be the ideal solution for emission reduction, as their operation is completely free of local pollutant emissions. However, the currently available electric vehicles are more expensive than the internal combustion engine powered counterparts.Against this backdrop, this paper focuses on optimizing battery electric vehicles for taxi segment requirements, and analyzes possible ways to make the technology affordable. The presented work begins with a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threads (SWOT) analysis for vehicle electrification, having clean urban mobility as central objective.…
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Optimized Exhaust After-Treatment System Solution for Indian Heavy Duty City Bus Application - The Challenges Involved and the Right Approach to Meet Future BS VI Emission Legislations and Real World Driving Emissions

FEV Europe GmbH-Markus Ehrly
FEV India Pvt, Ltd.-Ashraf Emran, Rouble Sandhu, Rajesh Santhoji Kale, Vijay Sharma, Devising Rathod
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
The vehicular pollution and emission levels are alarmingly increasing in India. The metro and urban cities are worst hit by the gaseous and particulate emissions produced by internal combustion engine powered vehicles. Following the trend from other developed countries, Government of India (GOI) has decided to migrate from existing BS IV legislation directly to BS VI legislation from April 2020 all across India. This migration in emission legislation took almost 10 years to be implemented in European Union (EU) countries. However, for India, the targeted implementation time is just 3 years, making it an uphill challenge for all the vehicle manufacturers. City bus is one such applications, which run mostly within the city and currently are powered by conventional Diesel engines. The vehicle manufacturers should focus on finding an optimized solution for meeting the future emission legislation in true sense. This calls for meeting the emission limits with not only the legislative engine dynamometer cycles but also considering the real world driving cycle (RDE) in their solution.The study presented here involves finding the optimized solution…
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Coupled Dynamic Simulation of Two Stage Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) Connecting Rod Using Virtual Dynamics

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

FEV Europe GmbH-Sebastian Sonnen, Alexander Uhlmann, Daniel Henaux
FEV India Pvt Ltd-Prashant Mane, Ralf Blum, Vijay Sharma
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-26-0031
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
The fuel consumption of combustion engines requires continuous reduction to meet future CO2 fleet targets. The progression of emission legislations shifted the focus on PN and NOX emissions in real world driving scenarios (RDE). Recently, the monitoring of CO emissions puts high load fuel enrichment for component protection into focus and a ban on enrichment is widely expected. Hence, gasoline engine technologies, which enable Lambda 1 operation in the entire engine map are specifically promoted. Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) attacks all these topics already at the combustion process. In addition to the well-known CO2 capability, VCR also enables enlargement of the lambda 1 operation in gasoline engines as well as reduced NOX emissions in diesel engines. The basic principle of developed VCR solution is to change the effective length of the connecting rod (and thereby the compression ratio) in two stages by several millimeters. Basically, the VCR connecting rod consists of a mechanical and hydraulic system which is fed with oil by the connecting rod bearing. All functional elements to realize the variability such as…
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Technology to Achieve Engine Efficacy: Friction Reduction

FEV India Pvt. Ltd.-Aditya Pratap Singh, Diwanshu Wadhwani, Prashant Sharma, Vivek Rai, Vijay Sharma
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The engine efficacies require the blend of friction reduction approach for optimising the attained output. The research elucidates the scope of friction reduction mechanism to increase engine power and life. The engine components piston and piston rings are coated with the unique composite of graphite, molybdenum disulfide, tantalum layer to reduce friction and wear. The coating on piston minimizes direct contact between piston and cylinder liner, which reduces friction, BSFC and lead to better thermal stability, and engine life. The research also focuses on friction reduction of camshaft bearing by replacing sliding contact bearing with low friction roller bearing. The friction between engine components reduces output power, and the engine oil temperature plays a significant role in it. The research empowers zirconium dioxide coating on oil sump in order to reduce the temperature decay rate so that the optimized engine oil temperature of 100 °C can be retained for longer time. The cars because of traffic gets on and off sporadically, where engine oil temperature role become more prominent, as optimised temperature reduces the problems caused…
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Optimization of Exhaust After-Treatment System (EATS) to BS 6 Emission Level for a Light Commercial Vehicle (LCV) Using Existing BS 4 Engine Results and 1-D Simulation Approach

SAE International Journal of Engines

FEV GmbH-John Henry Kwee, Thorsten Michaelis-Hauswaldt
FEV Group Holding GmbH-Thomas Körfer
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-26-0119
Published 2017-01-10 by SAE International in United States
The emission legislations are becoming increasingly strict all over the world and India too has taken a big leap in this direction by signaling the migration from Bharat Stage 4 (BS 4) to BS 6 in the year 2020. This decision by the Indian government has provided the Indian automotive industry a new challenge to find the most optimal solution for this migration, with the existing BS 4 engines available in their portfolio. Indian market for the LCV segment is highly competitive and cost sensitive where the overall vehicle operation cost (vehicle cost + fluid consumption cost) is the most critical factor. The engine and after-treatment technology for BS 6 emission levels should consider the factors of minimizing the additional hardware cost as well as improving the fuel efficiency. Often both of which are inversely proportional.The presented study involves the optimization of after treatment component size, layout and various systems for NOx and PM reduction. The study aims to analyze hardware changes required on the selected BS 4 engine to achieve improved engine out emission…
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