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Sato, G. Takeshi
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Study on particulate formation mechanism in DI diesel engine~Effect of dimethyl carbonate addition

Gunma Univ.-Hideaki Tanabe
Kanazawa Institute of Technology-Mitsutaka Oikawa, Satoshi Kato, G. Takeshi Sato
  • Technical Paper
  • 1999-08-0212
Published 1999-05-19 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
This paper is concerned with the particulate matter (PM) formation in direct-injection (DI) diesel engines. A system featuring an electromagnetically actuated sampling valve was used for sampling PM from the combustion chamber. The concentration of total particulate matter (TPM) and of two components, the soluble organic fractions (SOF) and insoluble fractions (ISF) were determined at different locations in the combustion chamber at different sampling timings. Conventional gas oil and 5% of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) added fuel were used. The results suggested that the PM formation was significantly affected by the wall quenching effects. The less PM was observed with DMC-added fuel for both in the combustion chamber and in the exhaust emission.
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Study on a Small Diesel Engine With Direct Injection Impinging Distribution Spray Combustion System-Optimum of Injection System and Combustion Chamber

Gunma Univ.-Hideaki Tanabe
Kanazawa Institute of Technology-Kenshi Fujita, Satoshi Kato, G. Takeshi Sato
  • Technical Paper
  • 978220
Published 1997-10-21 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
This study is concerned with a small bore (93 mm) diesel engine using impinged fuel spray, named OSKA system. The higher rate of injection show lower smoke emission with higher NOx emission. The exhaust emission and performance were investigated under different compression ratio with higher rate of injection. The experimental results show that this OSKA system is capable for reducing the smoke emission without the deterioration of NOx emission and fuel consumption compared with the conventional DI diesel engine.
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Investigation of Particulate Formation of DI Diesel Engine with Direct Sampling from Combustion Chamber

Gunma Univ.-Hideaki Tanabe
Kanazawa Institute of Technology-Satoshi Kato, Yoshitaka Takayama, G. Takeshi Sato, Takeshi G. Sato
Published 1997-10-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper is concerned with the formation of Particulate Matter (PM) in direct-injection (DI) diesel engines. A system featuring an electromagnetically actuated sampling valve was used for sampling of gas directly from the combustion chamber. The concentrations of total particulate matter (TPM) and of its two components, the Soluble Organic Fractions (SOF) and the Insoluble Fractions (ISF), were determined at different locations in the combustion chamber at different sampling times (different crank angles). High concentrations of SOF were found at sampling positions along the spray flame axis. The concentrations of SOF and ISF were higher at sampling positions close to the wall than away from the wall. The results suggest that SOF formation is significantly affected by wall quenching. Also, the PM concentrations were much higher in the combustion chamber than in the exhaust.
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Combustion Observation of OSKA-DH Diesel Engine by High-Speed Photography and Video System

Kanazawa Institute of Technology-Satoshi Kato, Kenshi Fujita, Hideaki Tanabe, G. Takeshi Sato
Nippon Clean Engine Laboratory Co.-Shigeru Onishi
Published 1996-05-01 by SAE International in United States
The OSKA-DH diesel engine employed a unique system (hereafter called OSKA system) which is composed of a single-hole fuel injector, an impinging disk and a re-entrant type combustion chamber.This study is concerned with the combustion observation of both OSKA-DH diesel engine and conventional DI diesel engine by the high-speed photography and video system. This video system enables us to take combustion photographs under the warm-up condition of the engine.From the observation of those photographs, the OSKA-DH engine shows the shorter ignition delay compared with a DI diesel engine and the combustion flame of OSKA-DH diesel engine are concentrated in the center of the combustion chamber and a relatively monotonous flame intensity are observed.THE AUTHORS HAVE DEVELOPED a new type of Direct Injection Stratified Charge Engine called “Direct Fuel Injection Impingement Diffusion Stratified Charge System” (hereafter called OSKA System).The authors have already reported the performance and exhaust emission of the methanol, gasoline and diesel engines utilizing this OSKA System (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8), (9), (10) and (11)*.In the previous reports (8), (9),…
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Particulate Emission Characteristics from an Impingement Diffusion Direct Injection Diesel Engine

Kanazawa Institute of Technology-Hideaki Tanabe, Masashi Takahashi, G. Takeshi Sato
Nippon Clean Engine Lab.-Satoshi Kato, Shigeru Onishi
Published 1994-10-01 by SAE International in United States
A new mixture formation and combustion process for reducing both emissions and fuel consumption has been developed, where the fuel impinges onto the impinging surface and spreads into the free space, named the OSKA process. A single cylinder engine particulate emission test was conducted with full flow dilution tunnel. The OSKA process shows lower TPM (total particulate matter) emission than the conventional DI diesel at the corresponding operating condition.ISF(insoluble fractions) and SOF(soluble organic fraction) are lower than DI diesel's. Correlation between SOF and THC of OSKA engine is, however different from that of conventional DI diesel. OSKA emits lower THC than conventional DI diesel does at the same SOF emission. This is because the wall quenching effect is smaller in OSKA than in conventional DI diesel.A NEW MIXTURE FORMATION and combustion technology, impinging diffusion one named OSKA, has been developed by the authors. The authors have reported the exhaust and performance characteristics of the OSKA system. The OSKA system has relatively low exhaust emission characteristics as well as low fuel consumption performance(1, 2 and 3).…
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Experimental Study on Unsteady Gas Jet

Kanazawa Institute of Technology-Hideaki Tanabe, G. Takeshi Sato
Published 1994-10-01 by SAE International in United States
In order to clarify the mixture formation process of the direct injection gas engine, helium gas was injected into a quiescent atmosphere. The time- and space-resolved velocity, pressure and concentration distributions were measured in the free unsteady gas jet and in the wall impinging unsteady gas jet. They were also obtained for the unsteady gas jet impinging onto a projection on a wall to enhance mixture formation.Empirical equations for the unsteady free jet were obtained, and the mixture formation mechanism of the wall impinging unsteady gas jet were clarified. The unsteady gas jet impinging onto the projection on a wall entrains much more air than the unsteady wall impinging jet.
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Investigation of Mixture Formation and Combustion of Newly Developed Diesel Engine Using Fuel Jet Impingement (Oska-Dh)

Kanazawa Institute of Technology-Hideaki Tanabe, G. Takeshi Sato
Nippon Clean Engine Lab. Co.-Satoshi Kato, Shigeru Onishi
  • Technical Paper
  • 94A067
Published 1994-03-16 by Associazione Tecnica Dell'Automobile in Italy
This study is concerned with development of a new type of Diesel engine using the fuel jet impingement (OSKA-DH). Simultaneous reduction of the NOx and smoke emission were demonstrated with a single cylinder prototype OSKA-DH engine. As a fundamental study on the mixture formation process, the observation of impinged fuel spray was studied by using a pressurized constant volume vessel. The high-speed combustion photographs of both re- entrant and open type combustion chamber were also taken by using the experimental transparent engine.From the observation of pressurized vessel and high-speed combustion photographs, the mixture formation and combustion was strongly affected by the squish flow velocity. The short ignition delay and faster combustion were observed by the re-entrant type combustion chamber because of high squish speed.
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Development of OSKA-DH Diesel Engine Using Fuel Jet Impingement and Diffusion Investigation of Mixture Formation and Combustion

Kanazawa Institute of Technology-Hideaki Tanabe, G. Takeshi Sato
Nippon Clean Engine Laboratory Co.-Satoshi Kato, Shigeru Onishi
Published 1994-03-01 by SAE International in United States
This study is concerned with development of a new type of diesel engine using the fuel jet impingement (OSKA-DH).Simultaneous reduction of the NOx and smoke emission were demonstrated with single cylinder prototype OSKA-DH engine.As a fundamental study on the mixture formation process, the observation of impinged fuel spray was studied by using a pressurized constant volume vessel. The high-speed combustion photographs of both re-entrant and open type combustion chamber were also taken by using the experimental transparent engine.From the observation of pressurized vessel and high-speed combustion photographs, the mixture formation and combustion was strongly affected by the squish flow velocity. The short ignition delay and faster combustion were observed by the re-entrant type combustion chamber because of high squish speed.
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Photographic Study of Spray Impinging onto a Projection on a Wall

Kanazawa Institute of Technology-Hideaki Tanabe, Masashi Takahashi, G. Takeshi Sato
Nippon Clean Engine Laboratory Co.-Satoshi Kato, Shigeru Onishi
Published 1993-10-01 by SAE International in United States
As a fundamental work on Direct Injection Impinging Diffusion Combustion Engine, fuel spray was injected momentary into a pressured CO2 gas and impinged onto a projection on a wall. Instantaneous photograph was taken and analyzed to clarify the spray characteristics. Nozzle opening pressure was varied to clarify its effects on spray characteristics. Nozzle needle was cut to form two pairs of flats on needle surface instead of its cylindrical one. The effect of this needle shape was also studied.Opening pressure of injection nozzle has produced very little effect on the spray tip penetration. Spray thickness is larger when needle opening pressure of injection nozzle is high.Spray tip penetration and spray thickness have become large when widths across flats is narrow.
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Wall Effects on SOF Formation

Kanazawa Institute of Technology-Hideaki Tanabe, Hiroharu Yamaguchi, Takahiko Yamamoto, G. Takeshi Sato
Published 1992-10-01 by SAE International in United States
Wall quenching plays a vital role on particulate formation. A single cylinder engine test has been carried out to clarify the effects of wall quenching on particulate emission.A completely warmed up engine is fired in variety of operating period under various engine load, and then stopped immediately. Deposits are collected from 25 positions on the combustion chamber wall. Area basis concentration of deposit is obtained at each position. Soluble organic fractions (SOF) extracted from deposit are analyzed with gel permeation chromatograph (GPC).Results show the correlation between SOF in exhaust particulate and in deposit.Deposit concentration is highest on the spray axis impinging region of piston cavity wall. GPC pattern of the SOF in deposit indicates that higher molecular weight composition generates as a result of polymerization of fuel where the main jet region of the spray impinges.
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