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Alternative Heavy-Duty Engine Test Procedure for Full Vehicle Certification

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-Houshun Zhang, James Sanchez, Matthew W. Spears
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2768
Published 2015-09-29 by SAE International in United States
In 2015 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) proposed a new steady-state engine dynamometer test procedure by which heavy-duty engine manufacturers would be required to create engine fuel rate versus engine speed and torque “maps”.[1] These maps would then be used within the agencies' Greenhouse Gas Emission Model (GEM)[2] for full vehicle certification to the agencies' proposed heavy-duty fuel efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards.This paper presents an alternative to the agencies' proposal, where an engine is tested over the same duty cycles simulated in GEM. This paper explains how a range of vehicle configurations could be specified for GEM to generate engine duty cycles that would then be used for engine testing. This paper discusses a numerical scheme by which GEM could interpolate these cycle average results instead of the steady-state map the agencies proposed. This paper explores this alternative via simulation and numerical analysis. Engine and powertrain testing of this alternative are described a companion SAE Technical Paper entitled “Alternative…
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Development of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GEM) for Heavy- and Medium-Duty Vehicle Compliance

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-Kevin A. Newman, Paul Dekraker, Houshun Zhang, James Sanchez, Prashanth Gururaja
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2771
Published 2015-09-29 by SAE International in United States
In designing a regulatory vehicle simulation program for determining greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fuel consumption, it is necessary to estimate the performance of technologies, verify compliance with the regulatory standards, and estimate the overall benefits of the program. The agencies (EPA/NHTSA) developed the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GEM) to serve these purposes. GEM is currently being used to certify the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of the Phase 1 rulemaking for all heavy-duty vehicles in the United States except pickups and vans, which require a chassis dynamometer test for certification. While the version of the GEM used in Phase 1 contains most of the technical and mathematical features needed to run a vehicle simulation, the model lacks sophistication. For example, Phase 1 GEM only models manual transmissions and it does not include engine torque interruption during gear shifting. The engine control is simplified and does not include fuel cut-off during decelerations and the agencies pre-specified the engine fuel maps. These simplifications are acceptable as far as certification is concerned, since the Phase 1 certification…
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Emissions of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PAHs from a Modern Diesel Engine Equipped with Selective Catalytic Reduction Filters

SAE International Journal of Engines

US Environmental Protection Agency-Christopher A. Laroo, Charles Schenk, James Sanchez, Joseph McDonald, Peter Smith
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1778
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Exhaust emissions of seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan (CDD/F) congeners, tetra-octa CDD/F homologues, twelve WHO 2005 chlorinated biphenyls (CB) congeners, mono-nona CB homologues, and nineteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a model year 2008 Cummins ISB engine equipped with aftertreatment including a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and wall flow copper or iron urea selective catalytic reduction filter (SCRF) were investigated. These systems differ from a traditional flow through urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst because they place copper or iron catalyst sites in close proximity to filter-trapped particulate matter. These conditions could favor de novo synthesis of dioxins and furans. The results were compared to previously published results of modern diesel engines equipped with a DOC, catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF) and flow through urea SCR catalyst. Testing included the use of fuel that contained the maximum expected chlorine concentration of United States' (U.S.) highway diesel fuel. Results indicate there is no risk for an increase in polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan and polychlorinated biphenyl emissions from modern diesel engines with wall flow urea SCRF catalysts when compared to…
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Development of Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis Tool

US Environmental Protection Agency-Byungho Lee, SoDuk Lee, Jeff Cherry, Anthony Neam, James Sanchez, Ed Nam
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis tool was created by Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate the greenhouse gas emissions and fuel efficiency of light-duty vehicles. It is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulator that is capable of analyzing various vehicle types equipped with different powertrain technologies. The software is built on MATLAB/Simulink. This first version release of the simulation tool models conventional vehicles and is capable of evaluating effects of off-cycle technologies on greenhouse gas emissions, such as air conditioning, electrical load reduction, road load reduction by active aerodynamics, and engine start-stop.This paper introduces the simulation tool by describing its basic model architecture and presenting its underlying physics as well as model formulations. It describes the simulation capability along with its graphical user interface of the tool, designed for off-cycle technology analysis purposes. Model validation results are provided by comparing the simulation outputs with conventional production vehicle test data. The paper concludes with a description of the role this model played in determining the effects of off-cycle technologies on greenhouse gas emissions to…
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