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Theoretical and Experimental Investigation on Power Loss of Vehicle Transmission Synchronizers with Spray Lubrication

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

TU Darmstadt-Zhihong Liu, Ye Shen, Stephan Rinderknecht
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-0028
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Besides optimal engine systems, high-efficiency vehicle transmissions are generally also required to improve fuel economy in automotive applications. For the energy loss analysis in transmissions, most research focused on the major mechanical components, such as gears, bearings and seals, while the other mechanical losses, like synchronizer losses, were usually not considered. With increasing number of synchronizers in modern transmissions, a recent study indicates that the power loss analysis of synchronizers should also be developed and appended for a more accurate investigation on overall power losses in transmissions. The function of synchronizer is to equalize the different rotational speeds of shafts and gear wheels by frictional torques, for which the synchronizer must be cooled and lubricated in order to enhance the service life. With the supplement of lubricants, fluid friction is generated due to the differential speed, when the synchronizer is in neutral position. This fluid friction can be principally regarded as load-independent synchronizer power loss. In this paper, fluid states and fluid dynamics in synchronizers with spray lubrication are analyzed analogously to multiple-plate clutches. Based…
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Stochastic Synthesis of Representative and Multidimensional Driving Cycles

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

COMPREDICT-Martin Zeller, Stéphane Foulard
TU Darmstadt-Arved Esser, Stephan Rinderknecht
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0095
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Driving cycles play a fundamental role in the design of components, in the optimization of control strategies for drivetrain topologies, and in the identification of vehicle properties. The focus on a single or a few test cycles results in a risk of non-optimal or even poor design regarding the real usage profiles. Ideally, multiple different driving cycles that are representative of the real and scattering operating conditions are used. Therefore, tools for the stochastic generation of representative driving cycles are required, and many works have addressed this issue with different approaches. Until now, the stochastic generation of representative testing cycles has been limited to low dimensionality, and only a few works have studied higher dimensionality using Markov chain theory. However, it is mandatory to create tools that can stochastically generate multidimensional cycles incorporating all relevant operating conditions and maintaining signal dependency at the same time. For this purpose, a new method to synthesize multidimensional and representative testing cycles that can handle constraints and is suited for many evaluation criteria is presented in this study. The…
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Modelling of Power Losses of Transmission Synchronizers in Neutral Position

IMS,Technische Universität Darmstadt-Ye Shen, Zhihong Liu
TU Darmstadt-Stephan Rinderknecht
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Developing an energy-efficient powertrain system is a solution for environment-friendly vehicles. Furthermore, it also enhances the performance of vehicles. In powertrain system, transmission plays an important role in terms of vehicle dynamic performance and energy consumption. Therefore, a lot of researches have been conducted on modelling power losses inside the transmission. Basically, the power losses in transmission consist of bearing losses, drag torque losses on gear blank that is immersed in the oil and gear mesh losses due to the sliding frictional force on gear flank. According to some experiments in the latest literatures, power losses of synchronizers cannot be neglected, when its shift sleeve is in neutral position. Principally, power losses of synchronizers in neutral position mainly come from load independent drag torque. The drag torque is generated by the shear torque of lubrication in the gap (or gaps) between synchronizer ring and synchronizer cone, which are rotating at different speed. In this paper, a drag torque model of synchronizer units in neutral position is built up based on mechanism of tribology lubrication. Several…
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Online and Real-Time Condition Prediction for Transmissions based on CAN-Signals

TU Darmstadt-Stephan Rinderknecht, Rafael Fietzek, Stéphane Foulard
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
An online and real-time Condition Prediction system, so-called lifetime monitoring system, was developed at the Institute for Mechatronic Systems in Mechanical Engineering (IMS) of the TU Darmstadt, which is intended for implementation in standard control units of series production cars. Without additional hardware and only based on sensors and signals already available in a standard car, the lifetime monitoring system aims at recording the load/usage profiles of transmission components in aggregated form and at estimating continuously their remaining useful life. For this purpose, the dynamic transmission input and output torques are acquired realistically through sensor fusion.In a further step, the lifetime monitoring system is used as an input-module for the introduction of innovative procedures to more load appropriate dimensioning, cost-efficient lightweight design, failure-free operation and predictive maintenance of transmissions. This is based on damage-oriented operating strategies (so-called eLIFE) and a paradigm shift in the design philosophy relying on a smart big data approach (so-called ecoLIFE3 design procedure).The paper will present the lifetime monitoring system by the example of two concrete application cases, namely a manual…
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Implementation of an Open-Loop Controller to Design the Longitudinal Vehicle Dynamics in Passenger Cars

Daimler AG-Christoph Andre Malonga Makosi, Ralf Binz, Frank Uphaus, Frank Kirschbaum
Technical University of Darmstadt-Stephan Rinderknecht
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
In order to offer a wide range of driving experiences to their customers, original equipment manufacturers implement different driving programs. The driver is capable of manually switching between these programs which alter drivability parameters in the engine control unit. As a result, acceleration forces and gradients are modified, changing the perceived driving experience. Nowadays, drivability is calibrated iteratively through road testing. Hence, the resulting set of parameters incorporated within the engine control unit is strongly dependent on the individual sentiments and decisions of the test engineers.It is shown, that implementing a set of objective criteria offers a way to reduce the influences of personal preferences and sentiments in the drivability calibration process. In combination with the expertise of the test engineers, the desired vehicle behavior can be formalized into a transient set point sequence to give final shape to the acceleration behavior. To control the longitudinal dynamic of the vehicle in order to meet the customer expectations regarding to this set point sequence an open-loop controller is used.To alleviate comfort reducing drive train oscillations (non-linearities…
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Signal Generator for Prediction of Transient Control Signals of an Automotive Transmission Control Unit Depending on Scalar Calibration Parameters

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

TU Darmstadt-Ivan Rot, Stephan Rinderknecht
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-2155
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
In this investigation an innovative signal generator will be introduced, which enables the generation of transient control signals for the gearshift process. The signals are generated merely depending on scalar transmission control unit (TCU) calibration parameters. The signal generator replaces the comprehensive TCU software within the simulation environment. Thus no extensive residual bus simulation is required.Multiple experimental models represent the core part of the signal generator. To predict the system behavior of the underlying system, the models are trained using measured data from a powertrain with automatic transmission mounted on a test rig.The results demonstrate that the introduced signal generator is suitable to predict transient control signals for the gearshift operation accurately. In combination with an additional powertrain model it is possible to simulate the gearshift process and subsequently to evaluate the gearshift comfort. The signal generator allows a rapid implementation of a simulation environment for TCU calibration with less modeling effort in comparison with the implementation of the original TCU software. Due to a flexible approach, the signal generator offers to predict signals with…
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Comparison of Parameter-Identified Simulation Models with Different Detailing Level to Reproduce the Side Shaft Torque of an Automotive Powertrain with Automatic Transmission

SAE International Journal of Engines

TU Darmstadt-Leonard Yousif, Ivan Rot, Stephan Rinderknecht
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1148
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
The underlying basic model represents a powertrain with automatic transmission including a torque converter. It is based on a greybox-modeling approach, which refers to ordinary differential equations with identified parameters and characteristic curves. The validated basic model is extended in order to reproduce the system behavior and especially the side shaft torque during a gear shift process. Therefore the model is extended by a transmission model with clutches for gear shifting in order to simulate specific powertrain dynamics additionally. The parameters have already been determined for the basic model using a method for isolated and structured parameter identification based on measurement data of an automotive powertrain test bench. A comparable structured parameter identification method is applied to obtain the parameters of the extended model.The extended model will be compared with a state observer which is based on a low-order model and neglects the detailed consideration of submodels with nonlinear characteristics. The observer also reconstructs the side shaft torque during the entire maneuver and will be consulted as an alternative approach for estimating non-measurable states in…
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Investigation of Black Box Modeling Approaches for Representation of Transient Gearshift Processes in Automotive Powertrains with Automatic Transmission

TU Darmstadt-Ivan Rot, Daniel Fritz Plöger, Stephan Rinderknecht
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this investigation two different nonlinear dynamic black box modelling approaches are compared. The purpose of the models is to reproduce the transient gearshift process. The models are used to compute the torque at the sideshafts, which is highly correlated to the gearshift comfort. The first model is a Gaussian process (GP) model. The GP is a probabilistic, non-parametric approach, which is additionally capable to compute the confidence interval of the simulated output signal. The second black box model uses the artificial neural net (ANN) approach. In addition to training algorithms the resulting model configurations for both black box approaches are shown in this investigation. Furthermore the empirical error of both modeling approaches is compared to the predictive variance of the GP model and to the intrinsic uncertainty of the gearshift process.This research demonstrates that black box models are capable of representing the torque at the sideshafts of a transient gearshift process. The results show that both investigated black box approaches yield a sufficient accuracy. Nonetheless the models have their own characteristic advantages, so that…
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Car-in-the-Loop Complete Vehicle Test Rig

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

TU Darmstadt-Rafael Fietzek, Stephan Rinderknecht
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0647
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
During the last years mechatronic systems developed into one of the biggest drivers of innovation in the automotive industry. The start of production of systems like dual clutch transmission, lane departure warning systems and active suspensions proves this statement. These systems have an influence on the longitudinal, steering and vertical dynamics of the vehicle. That is why the interaction on vehicle level is crucial for an optimal result in the fields of efficiency, comfort, safety and dynamics. To optimize the interaction of mechatronic systems, in this paper a new test rig concept for a complete vehicle is presented. The so-called Car-in-the-Loop-concept is capable of realistically reproducing the loads, which act on the powertrain, the steering and the suspension during a test drive. The resulting advantages are the possibility to exactly reproduce test procedures, the independence from weather conditions and a minimization of the risk of human injuries during testing of safety functions. A prototype of this concept, which includes parts of the powertrain, the steering and the chassis corresponding to the left front side of…
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Control Strategy for the Excitation of a Complete Vehicle Test Rig with Terrain Constraints

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Purdue Univ.-Cannon Cheng
TU Darmstadt-Rafael Fietzek, Stephan Rinderknecht
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0671
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
A unique concept for a multi-body test rig enabling the simulation of longitudinal, steering and vertical dynamics was developed at the Institute for Mechatronic Systems (IMS) at TU Darmstadt. A prototype of this IMS test rig is currently being built. In conjunction with the IMS test rig, the Vehicle Terrain Performance Laboratory (VTPL) at Virginia Tech further developed a full car, seven degree of freedom (7 DOF) simulation model capable of accurately reproducing measured displacement, pitch, and roll of the vehicle body due to terrain excitation. The results of the 7 DOF car model were used as the reference input to the multi-body IMS test rig model. The goal of the IMS/VTPL joint effort was to determine whether or not a controller for the IMS test rig vertical actuator could accurately reproduce wheel displacements due to different measured terrain constraints. This paper presents the prototype test rig, high-fidelity terrain measurement process, seven degree of freedom car model, and the vertical actuator control strategy. The results indicate that the vertical hydraulic actuator control meets the requirements…
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