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Rickeard, David J.
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Effect of Octane Number on the Performance of Euro 5 and Euro 6 Gasoline Passenger Cars

BP International Ltd.-John Williams
Concawe-Heather D. Hamje, David J. Rickeard
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) are used to describe gasoline combustion which describe antiknock performance under different conditions. Recent literature suggests that MON is less important than RON in modern cars and a relaxation in the MON specification could improve vehicle performance. At the same time, for the same octane number change, increasing RON appears to provide more benefit to engine power and acceleration than reducing MON. Some workers have advocated the use of an octane index (OI) which incorporates both parameters instead of either RON or MON to give an indication of gasoline knock resistance. Previous Concawe work investigated the effect of RON and MON on the power and acceleration performance of two Euro 4 gasoline passenger cars during an especially-designed acceleration test cycle. A large number of fuels blended with and without oxygenates and ranging from around 95 to 103 RON and sensitivities (RON minus MON) up to around 15 were tested. The results were vehicle dependent but in general, showed that sensitivity and octane index appear to be…
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Advanced Combustion for Low Emissions and High Efficiency Part 1: Impact of Engine Hardware on HCCI Combustion

CONCAWE-Kenneth D. Rose
Consultant, Fuels and Environment-David J. Rickeard
Published 2008-10-06 by SAE International in United States
Two single-cylinder diesel engines were optimised for advanced combustion performance by means of practical and cumulative hardware enhancements that are likely to be used to meet Euro 5 and 6 emissions limits and beyond. These enhancements included high fuel injection pressures, high EGR levels and charge cooling, increased swirl, and a fixed combustion phasing, providing low engine-out emissions of NOx and PM with engine efficiencies equivalent to today's diesel engines. These combustion conditions approach those of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), especially at the lower part-load operating points.Four fuels exhibiting a range of ignition quality, volatility, and aromatics contents were used to evaluate the performance of these hardware enhancements on engine-out emissions, performance, and noise levels.
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Advanced Combustion for Low Emissions and High Efficiency Part 2: Impact of Fuel Properties on HCCI Combustion

CONCAWE-Kenneth D. Rose
Consultant, Fuels and Environment-David J. Rickeard
Published 2008-10-06 by SAE International in United States
A broad range of diesel, kerosene, and gasoline-like fuels has been tested in a single-cylinder diesel engine optimized for advanced combustion performance. These fuels were selected in order to better understand the effects of ignition quality, volatility, and molecular composition on engine-out emissions, performance, and noise levels. Low-level biofuel blends, both biodiesel (FAME) and ethanol, were included in the fuel set in order to test for short-term advantages or disadvantages.The diesel engine optimized in Part 1 of this study included cumulative engine hardware enhancements that are likely to be used to meet Euro 6 emissions limits and beyond, in part by operating under conditions of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), at least over some portions of the speed and load map.
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Impact of Fuel Sulfur on Gasoline and Diesel Vehicle Emissions

ExxonMobil Petroleum and Chemical-David J. Rickeard
ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company-Albert M. Hochhauser, Charles H. Schleyer, Lisa I. Yeh
Published 2006-10-16 by SAE International in United States
Recent years have seen dramatic reductions in gasoline and diesel sulfur concentrations in the United States, Europe, Japan and other countries. Many developing countries are evaluating the appropriate sulfur levels to choose for the future. This paper examines the current state of knowledge concerning the impact of fuel sulfur on exhaust emissions, and the sensitivity of exhaust aftertreatment technology to fuel sulfur. Gasoline vehicles achieve very low emissions through use of three-way catalysts. These systems are relatively insensitive to sulfur, being able to operate on levels of up to 500 ppm. Further reduction in sulfur will produce additional, small emission reductions. Diesel emissions may be reduced significantly using engine modifications, oxidation catalysts or exhaust gas recirculation, which may require sulfur levels of 500 ppm. Advanced diesel emissions reduction technologies such as catalyzed particulate traps and catalytic NOx devices generally require sulfur levels as low as 50 ppm.
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Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Future Automotive Fuels and Powertrains in the European Context

CONCAWE-Jean-François Larivé
ExxonMobil-David J. Rickeard
Published 2004-06-08 by SAE International in United States
A consortium of CONCAWE, EUCAR and the EU Commission's JRC carried out a Well-to-Wheels analysis of a wide range of automotive fuels and powertrains. The study gives an assessment of the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for each pathway. It also considers macroeconomic costs and the market potential of alternative fuels.
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Diesel and Gasoline Performance and Additives

David C. Arters, Scott L. Ellis, Martial Hublin, Shinji Kobayashi, Steve Mcarragher, Ken Mitchell, Kei Miwa, Masahiko Nakada, Matthew S. Newkirk, David J. Rickeard, Henk Sengers
  • Special Publication (SP)
  • SP-1551
Published 2000-06-19 by SAE International in United States
Papers include: present day diesel engine pollutant emissions: proposed model for refinery bases impact; heavy duty testing cycles development: a new methodology; understanding diesel lubricity; valve seat recession - an independent review of existing data; fuel property requirement for advanced technology engines; EPA HDEWG program - test fuel development.
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Diesel Fuel Ignition Quality as Determined in the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) - Part II

Advanced Engine Technology Ltd.-Luc N. Allard, Norman J. Hole, Gary D. Webster
Esso Petroleum Co., Ltd.-Nigel G. Elliot, David J. Rickeard
Published 1997-05-01 by SAE International in United States
A combustion-based analytical method, initially developed by the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and referred to as the Constant Volume Combustion Apparatus (CVCA), has been further researched/developed by an SwRI licensee (Advanced Engine Technology Ltd.). This R&D has resulted in a diesel fuel Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) that permits rapid and precise determination of the ignition quality of middle distillate and alternative fuels. Its features, such as low fuel volume requirement, complete test automation, and self-diagnosis, make it highly suitable for commercial oil industry and research applications. A preliminary investigation, reported in SAE paper 961182, has shown that the IQT results are highly correlated to the ASTM D-613 cetane number (CN).The objective of this paper is to report on efforts to further refine the original CN model and report on improvements to the IQT fuel injection system. The new model, based on the ASTM D-613 reference fuels, has been validated with over 175 fuel samples, which are representative of commercially available diesel fuels from North America and Europe. The matrix of test fuels was composed of…
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Exhaust Particulate Size Distribution: Vehicle and Fuel Influences in Light Duty Vehicles

A.E.A. Technology-John J. McAughey, Colin J. Dickens
Esso Petroleum Co. Ltd.-David J. Rickeard, John R. Bateman, Yeong K. Kwon
Published 1996-10-01 by SAE International in United States
Particle emissions from vehicles are currently under close scrutiny with respect to their contribution to ambient air quality relative to other sources. Small particles, less than 10 μm, referred to as PM10, have been linked to various health issues. In this study, tests have been performed on European diesel light duty vehicles using a range of production diesel fuels. Tests were also performed on two gasoline passenger cars for comparison. Measurements were made of exhaust particle size distribution and number, as well as mass emissions using the legislated filter paper method. The results showed that most of the particles emitted were very small, with median size of the order 100 nanometres (nm). The median particle size was insensitive to changes in fuel, vehicle or operating condition. Measurements of particle number broadly correlated with particle mass emissions, and ranked fuels and vehicle types in the same order. Under urban driving conditions, the gasoline TWC car had extremely low particulate emissions, while the non-catalyst gasoline car had emissions around 50% of those from the best diesel vehicle…
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European Programme on Emissions, Fuels and Engine Technologies (EPEFE) - Comparison of Light and Heavy Duty Diesel Studies

Esso Research Centre-David J. Rickeard
Iveco Motorforschung-Meinrad Signer
Published 1996-05-01 by SAE International in United States
The results for the light duty and heavy duty diesel studies in the EPEFE have been compared, and areas of similarity and differences explored. Consistent with the intent to choose the widest possible range of engine technologies and vehicle configurations, the impact of the vehicle and engine sets on emissions was larger than that of the matrix of fuel properties. Vehicles showed a wide range in response to the fuel properties investigated. In some cases, the effects of fuel changes on emissions from the LD vehicle and HD engine sets were similar, but in other cases emissions changed in opposite directions in the two sets for the same fuel change. However, fuel changes that were beneficial for PM in LD vehicles were also positive for NOx and PM in HD engines. Differences between engine design features and test cycles were examined to investigate the reasons for these results.Fuel effects were generally larger in percentage terms for Light Duty Vehicles than for Heavy Duty Engines. The effects of fuel density in HD engines were explained by…
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Diesel Fuel Ignition Quality Measurement by a Constant Volume Combustion Test

Esso Research Centre-Gunter Datschefski, David J. Rickeard
Published 1993-10-01 by SAE International in United States
A new technique for measuring ignition quality of diesel fuels has been evaluated. Primarily a constant volume combustion apparatus, the Diesel Fuel Ignition Analyser (DFIA) provides a direct output of ignition delay. Microprocessor control and semi-automatic operation ensure rapid determinations. Tests were performed to find the operating conditions giving the best results in terms of various performance indicators, settling upon 450°C/20bar for combustion air preheat and pressure.A preliminary correlation model based on ignition delay predicted D613 Cetane Number with ± 1.3CN at 95% confidence. More results are required to improve this correlation and define statistical precision of the method.
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