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Optical Characterization of the Combustion Process inside a Large-Bore Dual-Fuel Two-Stroke Marine Engine by Using Multiple High-Speed Cameras

Lund University-Alexios Matamis, Mattias Richter
MAN Energy Solutions-Johan Hult, Eric Baudoin, Stefan Mayer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0788
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Dual-fuel engines for marine propulsion are gaining in importance due to operational and environmental benefits. Here the combustion in a dual-fuel marine engine operating on diesel and natural gas, is studied using a multiple high-speed camera arrangement. By recording the natural flame emission from three different directions the flame position inside the engine cylinder can be spatially mapped and tracked in time. Through space carving a rough estimate of the three-dimensional (3D) flame contour can be obtained. From this contour, properties like flame length and height, as well as ignition locations can be extracted. The multi-camera imaging is applied to a dual-fuel marine two-stroke engine, with a bore diameter of 0.5 m and a stroke of 2.2 m. Both liquid and gaseous fuels are directly injected at high pressure, using separate injection systems. Optical access is obtained using borescope inserts, resulting in a minimum disturbance to the cylinder geometry. In this type of engine, with fuel injection from positions at the rim of the cylinder, the flame morphology becomes asymmetric. The optical spatial mapping and…
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Transition from HCCI to PPC: Investigation of the Effect of Different Injection Timing on Ignition and Combustion Characteristics in an Optical PPC Engine

Lund University-Miao Zhang, Saeed Derafshzan, Leilei Xu, Xue-Song Bai, Mattias Richter, Marcus Lundgren
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0559
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The partially premixed combustion (PPC) concept is regarded as an intermediate process between the thoroughly mixed Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion and compression ignition (CI) combustion. It’s a combination of auto-ignition mode, a fuel-rich premixed combustion mode, and a diffusion combustion mode. The concept has both high efficiency and low soot emission due to low heat losses and less stratified fuel and air mixtures compared to conventional diesel CI. The mechanisms behind the combustion process are not yet very well known. This work focuses on the efficiency and the in-cylinder process in terms of fuel distribution and the initial phase of the combustion. More specifically, double injection strategies are compared with single injection strategies to achieve different levels of stratification, ranging from HCCI to PPC like combustion as well as poor (43%) to good (49%) of gross indicated efficiency. The experiments were performed in an optical heavy-duty CI engine.To analyze how the efficiency was affected in a transition from HCCI to PPC, the natural luminosity (N.L.) was captured with high-speed video (HSV). To complement…
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Impact of Multiple Injection Strategies on Efficiency and Combustion Characteristics in an Optical PPC Engine

Lund University-Miao Zhang, Leilei Xu, Saeed Derafshzan, Xue-Song Bai, Mattias Richter, Marcus Lundgren
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1131
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) is a promising way to achieve high thermal efficiency and low emissions, especially by using multiple injection strategies. The mechanisms behind PPC efficiency are still to be explained and explored. In this paper, multiple injections have been used to affect the gross indicated efficiency in an optical PPC engine modified from a Volvo MD13 heavy-duty diesel engine. The aim is both to improve and impair the gross indicated efficiency to understand the differences. The combustion natural luminosity is captured by a high-speed camera, and the distribution of fuel, oxygen, and temperature during the combustion process has been further explored by CFD simulation. The results show that with the right combination of the pilot, main, and post injection the gross indicated efficiency can be improved. Using a post injection in a triple-injection case show to have less effect on the combustion phasing than pilot injection in a double-injection case, while it can significantly affect combustion efficiency. The later of the double-injection cases tested (c30/16), has less heat transfer losses since the high-temperature…
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Comparison of heat losses at the impingement point and in between two impingement points in a diesel engine using phosphor thermometry

Lund University, Division of Combustion Physics-Alexios Matamis, Mattias Richter
Scania CV AB-Christian Binder, Daniel Norling
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2185
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In-cylinder heat losses in diesel engines reduce engine efficiency significantly and account for a considerable amount of injected fuel energy. A great part of the heat losses during diesel combustion presumably arises from the impingement of the flame. The present study compares the heat losses at the point where the flame impinges onto the piston bowl wall and the heat losses between two impingement points. Measurements were performed in a full metal heavy-duty diesel engine with a small optical access through a removed exhaust valve. The surface temperature at the impingement point of the combusting diesel spray and at a point in between two impingement points was determined using phosphor thermometry. The dynamic heat fluxes and the heat transfer coefficients which result from the surface temperature measurements are estimated. Simultaneous cylinder pressure measurements and high-speed videos are associated to individual surface temperature measurements. Thus each surface temperature measurement is linked to a specific impingement and combustion events. An analysis of the surface temperature in connection with the high speed images reveals the great impact of…
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Numerical Investigation of Methanol Ignition Sequence in an Optical PPC Engine with Multiple Injection Strategies

Birmingham University-Mehdi Jangi
Lund University-Mateusz Pucilowski, Hesameddin Fatehi, Sara Lonn, Alexios Matamis, Oivind Andersson, Mattias Richter, Xue-Song Bai
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Methanol is a genuine candidate on the alternative fuel market for internal combustion engines, especially within the heavy-duty transportation sector. Partially premixed combustion (PPC) engine concept, known for its high efficiency and low emission rates, can be promoted further with methanol fuel due to its unique thermo-physical properties. The low stoichiometric air to fuel ratio allows to utilize late injection timings, which reduces the wall-wetting effects, and thus can lead to less unburned hydrocarbons. Moreover, combustion of methanol as an alcohol fuel, is free from soot emissions, which allows to extend the operation range of the engine. However, due to the high latent heat of vaporization, the ignition event requires a high inlet temperature to achieve ignition event. In this paper LES simulations together with experimental measurements on an heavy-duty optical engine are used to study methanol PPC engine. After a successful calibration of the pressure trace in terms of required intake temperature and combustion model, the optical natural luminosity data is used to validate prediction of ignition kernel and vapor penetration length. Moreover, it…
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Effect of Injection Timing on the Ignition and Mode of Combustion in a HD PPC Engine Running Low Load

Lund University-Christian Ibron, Mehdi Jangi, Sara Lonn, Alexios Matamis, Oivind Andersson, Martin Tuner, Mattias Richter, Xue-Song Bai
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This work aims to study the effect of fuel inhomogeneity on the ignition process and subsequent combustion in a compression ignition Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) engine using a primary reference fuel (PRF) in low load conditions. Five cases with injection timings ranging from the start of injection (SOI) at -70 crank angle degrees (CAD) to -17 CAD have been studied numerically and experimentally in a heavy duty (HD) piston bowl geometry. Intake temperature is adjusted to keep the combustion phasing constant. Three dimensional numerical simulations are performed in a closed cycle sector domain using the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) formulation with k-ϵ turbulence closure and direct coupling of finite rate chemistry. The results are compared with engine experiments. The predicted trends in required intake temperature and auto-ignition location for a constant combustion phasing are consistent with experiments. The simulations show that the auto-ignition is critically dependent on both fuel and temperature stratification. The ignition occurs in fuel-lean regions but the mixing of the fuel with the cylinder gas and the cylinder gas temperature stratification (prior…
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Interaction between Fuel Jets and Prevailing Combustion During Closely-Coupled Injections in an Optical LD Diesel Engine

Lund University-Alexios Matamis, Mattias Richter, Öivind Andersson
Volvo Car Corporation-Michael Denny, Håkan Persson
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Two imaging techniques are used to investigate the interaction between developed combustion from earlier injections and partially oxidized fuel (POF) of a subsequent injection. The latter is visualized by using planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) of formaldehyde and poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. High speed imaging captures the natural luminescence (NL) of the prevailing combustion. Three different fuel injection strategies are studied. One strategy consists of two pilot injections, with modest separations after each, followed by single main and post injections. Both of the other two strategies have three pilots followed by single main and post injections. The separations after the second and third pilots are several times shorter than in the reference case (making them closely-coupled). The closely-coupled cases have more linear heat release rates (HRR) which lead to much lower combustion noise levels. For all cases, POF is detected during the very weak HRR before the notable combustion of the first pilot injection’s fuel. When the subsequent fuel injections overlap with a local decrease in HRR, the prevailing combustion is to some degree extinguished during…
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Open Access

Study on Heat Losses during Flame Impingement in a Diesel Engine Using Phosphor Thermometry Surface Temperature Measurements

Lund University-Alexios Matamis, Mattias Richter
Scania CV AB-Christian Binder, Daniel Norling
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In-cylinder heat losses in diesel engines decrease engine efficiency significantly and account for approximately 14-19% [1, 2, 3] of the injected fuel energy. A great part of the heat losses during diesel combustion presumably arises from the flame impingement onto the piston. Therefore, the present study investigates the heat losses during flame impingement onto the piston bowl wall experimentally. The measurements were performed on a full metal heavy-duty diesel engine with a small optical access through a removed exhaust valve. The surface temperature at the impingement point of the flame was determined by evaluating a phosphor’s temperature dependent emission decay. Simultaneous cylinder pressure measurements and high-speed videos are associated to the surface temperature measurements in each cycle. Thus, surface temperature readings could be linked to specific impingement and combustion events. The results showed a sharp increase of the surface temperature during the flame impingement and an abrupt decrease as the flame disappeared.
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Optical Investigation on the Combustion Process Differences between Double-Pilot and Closely-Coupled Triple-Pilot Injection Strategies in a LD Diesel Engine

Lund University-Alexios Matamis, Zhenkan Wang, Per Tunestal, Mattias Richter, Öivind Andersson
Volvo Car Corp.-Michael Denny, Håkan Persson
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
The combustion processes of three injection strategies in a light-duty (LD) diesel engine at a medium load point are captured with a high speed video camera. A double-pilot/main/single-post injection strategy representative of a LD Euro 6 calibration is considered as the reference. There is a modest temporal spacing (dwell) after the first pilot (P1) and second pilot (P2). A second strategy, “A,” adds a third pilot (P3). The dwell after both P2 and P3 are several times shorter than in the reference strategy. A third strategy, “B,” further reduces all dwells. Each injection has its own associated local peak in the heat release rate (HRR) following some ignition delay. Between these peaks lie local minima, or dips. In all three cases, the fuel from P1 combusts as a propagating premixed flame. For all strategies, the ignition of P2 primarily occurs at its interface with the existing combustion regions. Extinguishing of the prevailing combustion by the fuel jets of later injections is noted in all strategies. This phenomenon is confirmed by comparing the timing of each…
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Lift-Off Lengths in an Optical Heavy-Duty Engine Operated at High Load with Low and High Octane Number Fuels

Lund University-Marcus Lundgren, Alexios Matamis, Zhenkan Wang, Pablo Garcia Valladolid, Mattias Richter, Oivind Andersson
Volvo Global Truck Tech Powertrain Eng-Arne Andersson
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The influence of the ignition quality of diesel-and gasoline-like fuels on the lift-off length of the jet were investigated in an optical heavy duty engine. The engine was operated at a load of 22 bar IMEPg and 1200 rpm. A production type injector with standard holes were used. The lift-off length was recorded with high speed video Different injection pressures and inlet temperatures were used to affect conditions that consequently affect the lift-off length. No matter which fuel used nor injection pressure or inlet temperature, all lift-off lengths showed equal or close to equal lift-off length when stabilized. The higher octane fuel had a longer ignition delay and therefore the fuel penetrate the combustion chamber before auto ignition. This gave a longer lift-off length at the initial stage of combustion before reaching the same stabilized lift-off length. These results indicate that the hot combustion gases are a dominant factor to the lift-off length. Also, that possible soot reductions using high octanes fuels are feasible because of a longer ignition delay that allow more premixing, and…
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