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Solar Panels on Electrified Vehicles: Applications and Off-Cycle CO2 Credit

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Mahmoud Abdelhamid, Kevin Rhodes, Erik Christen, Daniel Kok
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0426
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this article is to provide a comprehensive investigation of the opportunities and applications of using solar panels in electrified vehicles. The use of photovoltaic (PV) panels as an auxiliary energy source of on-board fuel in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), full hybrid electric vehicles (FHEVs), and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) is investigated. The electrical architectures and the benefits of various possible applications are presented, such as active vehicle cabin ventilation, charging the low voltage battery, and charging the high voltage (HV) traction battery to extended driving ranges. In addition, the possibility of using PV panels to cool down the HV battery in extreme temperature environments is also investigated, supported by experimental tests used to properly model the thermal behavior of the HV battery and the effect of the cooling. This work also analyzes the CO2 off-cycle credits made available, by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and European Commission (EC), for automakers, which equip their vehicles with solar panels. Finally, the challenges and market outlook that make the on-board solar panel…
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Charger Sizing for Long-Range Battery Electric Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Ford Electric Vehicle-Daniel Kok
Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Jaswant Dhillon, N Khalid Ahmed, Kevin Rhodes
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0427
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The falling cost of lithium ion batteries combined with an ongoing need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is driving the proliferation of affordable long-range battery electric vehicles (BEVs). However, an inherent challenge with longer-range BEVs is the increased time required to fully charge the battery using standard 120/240 V AC power outlets. One approach to address this issue involves moving to higher power onboard AC chargers; however, household and utility wiring may not allow for the full capability of these higher power chargers. This study explores the typical time available for vehicle charging during an overnight stop based on real-world customer “MyFord Mobile” (MFM) data collected from Ford electrified vehicles. Through this approach, the available overnight time for recharging and required energy to be added to the battery are evaluated under the influence of typical daily driving distances, extreme ambient temperatures, and value charging time windows.
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Estimation of the Effects of Auxiliary Electrical Loads on Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fuel Economy

Ford Motor Company-Kevin Rhodes, Daniel Kok, Pallav Sohoni, Evan Perry, Marvin Kraska, Michael Wallace
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
In recent years the fuel efficiency of modern hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) powertrains has progressed to a point where low voltage auxiliary electrical system loads have a pronounced impact on fuel economy (FE). While improving the energy consumption of an individual component may result in minor improvements, the collective optimization of such loads across a complete vehicle system can result in meaningful FE gains. Traditional methods using chassis dynamometer testing alone to quantify the impact of a specific auxiliary load can lead to issues where signal state changes are too small for accurate detection. This presents difficulties in accurately predicting the influence of such loads on FE of next-generation electrified vehicles under development. This paper describes a newly developed method where dynamometer test results are combined with computer simulation analyses to create a practical technique for assessing the impact of small changes in auxiliary load energy consumption. The process combines the best features of empirical testing with model-based system engineering and accurately estimates the effect of small changes in total average oncycle auxiliary load power.…
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