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How Much Regeneration Events Influence Particle Emissions of DPF-Equipped Vehicles?

Istituto Motori CNR-Carlo Beatrice, Maria Antonietta Costagliola, Chiara Guido, Pierpaolo Napolitano, Maria Vittoria Prati
Published 2017-09-04 by SAE International in United States
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) is the most effective emission control device for reducing particle emissions (both mass, PM, and number, PN) from diesel engines, however many studies reported elevated emissions of nanoparticles (<50 nm) during its regeneration. In this paper the results of an extensive literature survey is presented. During DPF active regeneration, most of the literature studies showed an increase in the number of the emitted nanoparticles of about 2-3 orders of magnitude compared to the normal operating conditions. Many factors could influence their amount, size distribution, chemical-physical nature (volatiles, semi-volatiles, solid) and the duration of the regenerative event: i.e. DPF load and thermodynamic conditions, lube and fuel sulfur content, engine operative conditions, PN sampling and measurement methodologies. Moreover some experimental tests were performed at Istituto Motori’ labs with three Diesel vehicles (a Euro 5 2.2 liter van, and two medium size passenger cars) to estimate the effect of regeneration events in terms of both occurrences and emissions output. ELPI (Electrical Low Pressure Impactor) by Dekati, sampling directly from the tailpipe with a double…
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Real Driving Emissions of a Light-Duty Vehicle in Naples. Influence of Road Grade

Istituto Motori CNR-Maria Vittoria Prati, Giovanni Meccariello, Livia Della Ragione, Maria Antonietta Costagliola
Published 2015-09-06 by SAE International in United States
The aim of this study is to investigate the parameters influencing the real driving emission monitoring with particular attention towards the influence of road gradient. For this purpose, an experimental activity was carried out with a Euro 5 Diesel light-duty vehicle, driven along two tracks of Naples characterized by a different road gradient: the first pattern is quite flat, the second includes positive (+2.9%) and negative (−3.6%) road gradient.Exhaust emissions of CO, THC, NOx, CO2 were acquired on road by using a portable emission measuring system (PEMS) connected also to the Engine Control Unit for saving the main engine parameters and to the GPS for the geographical coordinates and altitude. The acquired speed profiles were repeated on the chassis-dynamometer without simulating the road gradient. In such way, comparison between on road and laboratory results over the flat pattern allowed to identify the main differences among the two testing procedures for pollutant emission measurements. Moreover, the influence of slope variability was statistically evaluated by comparing laboratory and on-board results of the pattern in altitude.Results highlight a…
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Real Time Emissive Behaviour of a Bi-Fuel Euro 4 SI Car in Naples Urban Area

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Istituto Motori CNR-Giovanni Meccariello, Livia Della Ragione, Maria Vittoria Prati, Maria Antonietta Costagliola, Valerio Saccoccia
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-24-0173
Published 2013-09-08 by SAE International in United States
An experimental campaign was carried out to evaluate the influence of CNG and gasoline on the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of a bi-fuel passenger car over on-road tests performed in the city of Naples. The chosen route is very traffic congested during the daytime of experimental measurements. An on-board analyzer was used to measure CO, CO2, NOx tailpipe concentrations and the exhaust flow rate. Throughout a carbon balance on the exhaust pollutants, the fuel consumption was estimated. The exact spatial position was acquired by a GPS which allowed to calculate vehicle speed and the traffic condition was monitored by a video camera. Whole trip realized by the vehicle was subdivided in succession of kinematic sequences and the vehicle emissions and fuel consumption were analyzed and presented as value on each kinematic sequence. Moreover, throughout a multivariate statistical analysis of sequences, the driving cycles characterizing the use of vehicle were identified.Finally, comparison between regulated emissions of CNG and gasoline configurations was performed qualitatively by the analysis of speed and emission profiles belonging to the same…
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Influence of Driving Cycles on Powered Two-Wheelers Emissions, Fuel Consumption and Cold Start Behavior

Istituto Motori CNR-Maria Vittoria Prati, Maria Antonietta Costagliola, Giovanni Meccariello
Univ of Genoa-Giorgio Zamboni, Chiara Carraro, Stefano Malfettani, Silvia Marelli, Massimo Capobianco
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
A wide investigation on powered two-wheelers (PTWs) is presented, aiming at the analysis of the influence of the driving characteristics on PTWs exhaust emissions and fuel consumption, a deeper comprehension of the engine and after-treatment system behavior within the cold start transient and the evaluation of cold start additional emissions for different two-wheelers classes. The study was developed with reference to an European context focusing on Euro 3 motorcycles and Euro 2 mopeds.An experimental investigation on instantaneous speed measurements was carried out with instrumented motorcycles, considering typical urban trips in the city of Genoa. A selection of speed profiles was then performed by processing experimental values. In a following phase, emissions and fuel consumption of selected motorcycles and mopeds were measured on the chassis dynamometer, considering tests in cold and hot operating conditions on standard, real world driving cycles and experimental speed profiles, allowing to study the influence of different speed patterns on exhaust emissions. Finally, a wide statistical analysis was developed in order to identify the most influencing kinematic parameters on fuel consumption and…
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Statistical Investigation of In Use Emissions and Fuel Consumption Measured by PEM on Different Gasoline Cars

Istituto Motori CNR-Livia Della Ragione, Giovanni Meccariello, Maria Vittoria Prati
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
In this paper some results relative to tests performed on road with a Fiat Panda Bipower, (CNG and gasoline powered), and a New Panda Twin Air with auto Start & Stop system, are presented. Gaseous emissions are measured with Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) on two different urban routes, in terms of traffic and slope characteristics during in use experiments. PEMS testing offers an easy and efficient way to evaluate the vehicle emissions over a huge variety of conditions and provides us a direct way to study the in-use emissions of combustion engines, when you want to verify the effect of the traffic and of a particular device on fuel economy and emissions reduction. Moreover now PEMS performances are very comparable to those obtained by standard laboratory instrumentation systems. Instrumentation installed on board for the measurement of gaseous emissions is a Semtech analyzer coupled with an exhaust flow meter; also vehicle position is individuated (from GPS) and engine parameters (via ECU or CAN) are registered at 1Hz.The aims of this activity are to compare fuel…
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Analysis of the Cooling Plant of a High Performance Motorbike Engine

Aprilia-Mario Manganelli
Istituto Motori CNR-Maria Vittoria Prati
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
This paper is based on a Research Project of the Department of Mechanical Engineering (DiME) in collaboration with Aprilia, the Italian motorbike manufacturer. In an attempt to simulate the functioning of the cooling plant of the Aprilia RSV-4 motorbike a numerical model was constructed using mono-dimensional and three-dimensional simulation codes. Our ultimate aim was to create a simulation model which could be of assistance to engine designers to improve cooling plant performance, thereby reducing research and development costs. The model allows to simulate the running conditions of the whole cooling circuit upon variations in environmental and running conditions.In particular, the centrifugal pump of the cooling plant was simulated by a 3D commercial software, while the whole circuit was built by a 1D commercial code which allows simulation of all the thermal exchanges and pressure drops in the cooling circuit._An experimental campaign was also performed to obtain data to properly set and tune the numerical model. The cooling circuit was instrumented by thermocouples and pressure transducers in several points, and the motorbike was installed on a…
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A Calculation Procedure for the Evaluation of Cold Emissive Behavior of High-Performance Motorcycles

Istituto Motori CNR-Maria Vittoria Prati
Universita di Napoli-Paolo Iodice, Adolfo Senatore
Published 2011-09-11 by SAE International in United States
All the experimental investigations performed in the last years on newly sold motorcycles, equipped with a three-way catalyst and electronic mixture control, clearly indicate that CO and HC cold additional emissions, if compared with those exhausted in hot conditions, represent an important proportion of total emissions. Consequently, calculation programs for estimating emissions from road transports for air quality modeling in dedicated local areas should take into consideration this effect. From this motivation, an experimental activity on motorcycles cold emissive behavior is being jointly conducted by Istituto Motori of the National Research Council (IM-CNR) and the Department of Mechanic and Energetic (DiME) of the University of Naples. The study explains a calculation procedure to model the cold start transient behavior of motorcycles; through this methodology it's possible to evaluate the cold transient duration, the emitted quantities during the cold phase and the relevant time-dependence function. This method also analyzes the influence of kinematic parameters on motorcycles emission factors during the cold-start. The whole procedure was applied to analyze the exhaust cold extra emissions of the regulated…
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Emissions and Combustion Behavior of a Bi-Fuel Gasoline and Natural Gas Spark Ignition Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Istituto Motori CNR-Maria Vittoria Prati, Reza Torbati, Maria Antonietta Costagliola
Seconda Università di Napoli-Antonio Mariani, Andrea Unich, Biagio Morrone
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-24-0212
Published 2011-09-11 by SAE International in United States
In the last ten years, the number of natural gas vehicles worldwide has grown rapidly with the biggest contribution coming from the Asia-Pacific and Latin America regions. As natural gas is the cleanest fossil fuel, the exhaust emissions from natural gas spark ignition vehicles are lower than those of gasoline powered vehicles. Moreover, natural gas is less affected by price fluctuations and its resources are more evenly widespread over the globe than to oil. However, as natural gas vehicles are usually bi-fuel gasoline and natural gas, the excellent knock resistant characteristics of natural gas cannot be completely exploited.This paper shows the results of an experimental activity performed on a passenger car fuelled alternatively by gasoline and compressed natural gas (CNG). The vehicle has been tested on a chassis dynamometer over standard (NEDC) and real driving cycles (Artemis CADC), allowing to investigate a wide range of operating conditions. Cylinder pressure has been measured by means of a spark plug with an integrated pressure transducer. By processing the acquired signal, a combustion analysis has been performed allowing…
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A Mobile Laboratory for On-board and Ambient Level Emissions Measurement

CERTH/CPERI, Greece-Dimitrios Zarvalis, Apostolos Tsakis, Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos
Istituto Motori, C.N.R., Italy-Maria Vittoria Prati, Maria Antonietta Costagliola
Published 2008-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Although engine emissions per vehicle have been reduced for twenty years with technical developments in the fields of engine, after-treatment technologies and fuels the urban air pollution problem still exists in many cities around the world. Forthcoming emission regulations will require further development of new complex technologies to reach low emissions. On-board driving assessment of such technologies offers significant advantages in the development phase of novel emission reduction. In this paper we present the design, development and commissioning of a mobile laboratory able to monitor on-board along the exhaust line gaseous and particulate pollutants as well as measure these pollutants in the ambient environment around the vehicle.
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Accuracy of Exhaust Emissions Measurements on Vehicle Bench

EMPA-Philippe Devaux
French National Institute for Transport and Safety Research -Robert Joumard, Jean-Marc André, Stéphanie Lacour
  • Technical Paper
  • 2006-05-0373
Published 2006-10-22 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Ten European laboratories worked together to study the influence of a lot of parameters of the measurement of light vehicle emission factors on vehicle bench, in order to improve the accuracy, reliability and representativeness of emission factors: driving patterns (driving cycles, gear choice behavior, driver and cycle following), vehicle-related parameters (technical characteristics of the vehicle, emission stability, emission degradation, fuel properties, vehicle cooling and preconditioning), vehicle sampling (method, sample size), and laboratory-related parameters (ambient temperature and humidity, dynamometer setting, dilution ratio, heated line sampling temperature, PM filter preconditioning, response time, dilution air). The results are based on literature synthesis, on about 2700 specific tests with 183 vehicles and on the reprocessing of more than 900 tests. These tests concern the regulated atmospheric pollutants and pre-Euro to Euro 4 vehicles. We did not find any influence of 7 parameters, and find only a qualitative influence for 7 other parameters. 6 parameters have a clear and quantifiable influence and 5 among them allow us to design correction factors to normalize emission measurements: gearshift strategy, vehicle mileage, ambient…