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Human Shoulder Response to Lateral Impact in Intermediate Loading Conditions Between High-Velocity, Short-Duration and Low-Velocity, Long-Duration

CEESAR (Nanterre, France)-Matthieu Lebarbé, Pascal Potier, Jérôme Uriot, Pascal Baudrit
DGA TT (Bourges, France)-Denis Lafont
Published 2018-11-12 by The Stapp Association in United States
The EuroSID-2re (ES-2re) Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) commonly known as the crash test dummy is also used in the military domain to assess the risk of injury of armored vehicles occupants from lateral impact. The loading conditions range from low velocity - long duration impacts (4 m/s - 50 ms) similar to the automotive domain, to high velocity - short duration impacts (28 m/s - 3 ms) corresponding to cases where the panel deforms under an explosion. The human shoulder response to lateral impact was investigated at bounds of the loading condition spectrum previously mentioned, and also at intermediate conditions (14 m/s - 9 ms) in previous studies. The aim of the current study is to provide additional insight at the intermediate loading conditions which are not found in the literature.Eight pure lateral shoulder impact tests were performed on Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) using an 8.1 kg rigid impactor at velocities ranging from 3.3 m/s to 8.8 m/s with the duration ranging from 25 ms to 35 ms. The PMHS were instrumented with accelerometers…
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Reference PMHS Sled Tests to Assess Submarining of the Small Female

CEESAR-Jérôme Uriot, Pascal Potier, Pascal Baudrit
Faurecia Automotive Seating-Olivier Richard
Published 2018-11-12 by The Stapp Association in United States
In the last decade, extensive efforts have been made to understand the physics of submarining and its consequences in terms of abdominal injuries. For that purpose, 27 Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) tests were performed in well controlled conditions on a sled and response corridors were provided to assess the biofidelity of dummies or human body models. All these efforts were based on the 50th percentile male.In parallel, efforts were initiated to transfer the understanding of submarining and the prediction criteria to the THOR dummies. Both the biofidelity targets and the criteria were scaled down from the 50th percentile male to the 5th percentile THOR female. The objective of this project was to run a set of reference PMHS tests in order to check the biofidelity of the THOR F05 in terms of submarining. Three series of tests were performed on nine PMHS, the first one was designed to avoid submarining, the second and third ones were designed to result in submarining.In the first configuration, no submarining was observed in 3 cases out of 4…
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New Reference PMHS Tests to Assess Whole-Body Pedestrian Impact Using a Simplified Generic Vehicle Front-End

Eric Song, Philippe Petit, Jerome Uriot, Pascal Potier
CEESAR-Denis Dubois
Published 2017-11-13 by The Stapp Association in United States
This study aims to provide a set of reference post-mortem human subject tests which can be used, with easily reproducible test conditions, for developing and/or validating pedestrian dummies and computational human body models against a road vehicle. An adjustable generic buck was first developed to represent vehicle front-ends. It was composed of four components: two steel cylindrical tubes screwed on rigid supports in V-form represent the bumper and spoiler respectively, a quarter of a steel cylindrical tube represents the bonnet leading edge, and a steel plate represents the bonnet. These components were positioned differently to represent three types of vehicle profile: a sedan, a SUV and a van. Eleven post-mortem human subjects were then impacted laterally in a mid-gait stance by the bucks at 40 km/h: three tests with the sedan, five with the SUV, and three with the van. Kinematics of the subjects were recorded via high speed videos, impact forces between the subjects and the bucks were measured via load cells behind each tube, femur and tibia deformation and fractures were monitored via…
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Investigation of Pelvic Injuries on Eighteen Post Mortem Human Subjects Submitted to Oblique Lateral Impacts

CEESAR-Matthieu Lebarbé, Pascal Baudrit, Pascal Potier
LAB PSA Peugeot Citroën Renault-Philippe Petit, Xavier Trosseille
Published 2016-11-07 by The Stapp Association in United States
The aim of this study was to investigate the sacroiliac joint injury mechanism. Two test configurations were selected from full scale car crashes conducted with the WorldSID 50th dummy resulting in high sacroiliac joint loads and low pubic symphysis force, i.e. severe conditions for the sacroiliac joint. The two test conditions were reproduced in laboratory using a 150-155 kg guided probe propelled respectively at 8 m/s and 7.5 m/s and with different shapes and orientations for the plate impacting the pelvis. Nine Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) were tested in each of the two configurations (eighteen PMHS in total). In order to get information on the time of fracture, eleven strain gauges were glued on the pelvic bone of each PMHS.Results - In the first configuration, five PMHS out of nine sustained AIS2+ pelvic injuries. All five presented sacroiliac joint injuries associated with pubic area injuries. In the second configuration, four specimens out of nine sustained AIS2+ pelvic injuries. Two of them presented sacroiliac joint fractures associated with pubic area injuries. The other two presented…
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Reference PMHS Sled Tests to Assess Submarining

CEESAR-Jérôme Uriot, Pascal Potier, Pascal Baudrit
Faurecia Automotive Seating-Olivier Richard
Published 2015-11-09 by The Stapp Association in United States
Sled tests focused on pelvis behavior and submarining can be found in the literature. However, they were performed either with rigid seats or with commercial seats. The objective of this study was to get reference tests to assess the submarining ability of dummies in more realistic conditions than on rigid seat, but still in a repeatable and reproducible setup. For this purpose, a semi-rigid seat was developed, which mimics the behavior of real seats, although it is made of rigid plates and springs that are easy to reproduce and simulate with an FE model. In total, eight PMHS sled tests were performed on this semi-rigid seat to get data in two different configurations: first in a front seat configuration that was designed to prevent submarining, then in a rear seat configuration with adjusted spring stiffness to generate submarining.All subjects sustained extensive rib fractures from the shoulder belt loading. No pelvis fractures and no submarining were observed in the front seat configuration, but two subjects sustained lumbar vertebrae fractures. In the rear seat configuration, all subjects…
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A Comparison of Sacroiliac and Pubic Rami Fracture Occurrences in Oblique Side Impact Tests on Nine Post Mortem Human Subjects

CEESAR-Mathieu Lebarbé, Pascal Baudrit, Pascal Potier
LAB PSA Peugeot Citroën Renault-Philippe Petit, Xavier Trosseille
Published 2015-11-09 by The Stapp Association in United States
The WorldSID dummy can be equipped with both a pubic and a sacroiliac joint (S-I joint) loadcell. Although a pubic force criterion and the associated injury risk curve are currently available and used in regulation (ECE95, FMVSS214), as of today injury mechanisms, injury criteria, and injury assessment reference values are not available for the sacroiliac joint itself. The aim of this study was to investigate the sacroiliac joint injury mechanism. Three configurations were identified from full-scale car crashes conducted with the WorldSID 50th percentile male where the force passing through the pubis in all three tests was approximately 1500 N while the sacroiliac Fy / Mx peak values were 4500 N / 50 Nm, 2400 N / 130 Nm, and 5300 N / 150 Nm, respectively. These tests were reproduced using a 150 kg guided probe impacting Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) at 8 m/s, 5.4 m/s and 7.5 m/s. The shape and the orientation of the impacting face of the probe were selected to match the WorldSID pubic Fy and sacroiliac Fy / Mx…
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Comparison of the Thorax Dynamic Responses of Small Female and Midsize Male Post Mortem Human Subjects in Side and Forward Oblique Impact Tests

CEESAR-Pascal Baudrit, Audrey Petitjean, Pascal Potier
LAB PSA Peugeot Citroën-Renault SA-Xavier Trosseille
Published 2014-11-10 by The Stapp Association in United States
Despite the increasing knowledge of the thorax mechanics in impact loadings, the effects of inter-individual differences on the mechanical response are difficult to take into account. For example, the biofidelity corridors for the small female or large male are extrapolated from the midsize male corridors.The present study reports on the results of new tests performed on small female Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS), and compares them with test results on midsize male PMHS. Three tests in pure side impact and three tests in forward oblique impact were performed on the thorax of small female specimens. The average weight and stature were 43 kg and 1.58 m for the small female specimens.The initial speed of the impactor was 4.3 m/s. The mass and the diameter of the impactor face were respectively 23.4 kg and 130 mm. The instrumentation and methodology was the same as for the tests published in 2008 by Trosseille et al. on midsize male specimens. The rib cages were instrumented with accelerometers on the T1, T4 and T12 vertebrae, upper and lower sternum,…
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The Effect of Upper Body Mass and Initial Knee Flexion on the Injury Outcome of Post Mortem Human Subject Pedestrian Isolated Legs

CEESAR-Denis Dubois, Pascal Potier
LAB PSA Peugeot Citroën Renault-Philippe Petit, Xavier Trosseille, Nicolas Dufaure
Published 2014-11-10 by The Stapp Association in United States
In the ECE 127 Regulation on pedestrian leg protection, as well as in the Euro NCAP test protocol, a legform impactor hits the vehicle at the speed of 40 kph. In these tests, the knee is fully extended and the leg is not coupled to the upper body. However, the typical configuration of a pedestrian impact differs since the knee is flexed during most of the gait cycle and the hip joint applies an unknown force to the femur.This study aimed at investigating the influence of the inertia of the upper body (modelled using an upper body mass fixed at the proximal end of the femur) and the initial knee flexion angle on the lower limb injury outcome.In total, 18 tests were conducted on 18 legs from 9 Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS). The principle of these tests was to impact the leg at 40 kph using a sled equipped with 3 crushing steel tubes, the stiffness of which were representative of the front face of a European sedan (bonnet leading edge, bumper and spoiler).…
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Kinematics and Dynamics of the Pelvis in the Process of Submarining using PMHS Sled Tests

LAB PSA Peugeot-Citroën Renault-Carole Luet, Xavier Trosseille
Université de Valenciennes-Pascal Drazétic, Pascal Potier, Guy Vallancien
Published 2012-10-29 by The Stapp Association in United States
This study focused on a better understanding and characterization of the submarining phenomenon that occurs in frontal crashes when the lap belt slides over the anterior superior iliac spine. Submarining is the consequence of the pelvis kinematics relative to the lap belt, driven by the equilibrium of forces and moments applied to the pelvis. The study had two primary purposes; the first was to provide new PMHS data in submarining test configurations, the second was to investigate the Hybrid II and Hybrid III dummies biofidelity regarding submarining. Several Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) studies have been published on this subject. However, the lack of information about the occupant initial positioning and the use of car seats make it difficult to reconstruct these tests. Furthermore, the two dummies are rarely compared to PMHS in submarining test configurations.A fifteen frontal sled test campaign was carried out on two Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) and nine PMHS. The test environment was designed to be reproducible. It consisted of a rigid seat, a 2-points shoulder belt and a 2-points lap…
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Investigation on Occupant Ejection in High Severity Rear Impact based on Post Mortem Human Subject Sled Tests

CEESAR-Carole Luet, Pascal Potier
LAB PSA-Peugeot Citroen Renault-Philippe Petit
Published 2011-11-07 by The Stapp Association in United States
Occupant protection in rear impact involves two competing challenges. On one hand, allowing a deformation of the seat would act as an energy absorber in low severity impacts and would consequently decrease the risk of neck injuries. However, on the other hand, large deformations of the seat may increase the likelihood of occupant ejection in high severity cases. Green et al., 1987 analyzed a total of 919 accidents in Great Britain. They found that occupant ejection resulted in a risk of severe injuries and fatalities between 3.6 and 4.5 times higher than those cases where no ejection was observed. The sample included single front, side and rear impacts as well as multiple impacts and rollover. The rate of belt use in the sample was 50%. While this analysis included all forms of impact scenarios, nevertheless, it highlights the relative injury severity of occupant ejection.Extensive literature search has found no full-scale rear impact tests involving Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) conducted in a laboratory environment and resulting in ejection.This paper describes a total of 10 sled…
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