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Electric Vehicle Cold Start Range Estimation through Battery-in-the-Loop Simulations within a Virtual Driving Environment

IPG Automotive GmbH-Pascal Piecha
Loughborough University, UK-Maria Sarmiento-Carnevali, Ashley Fly
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0453
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries have become a research focus in the field of electric and hybrid electric vehicles, due to key advantages such as high specific energy, high energy density and low self-discharge rate in comparison with other battery technologies. Nevertheless, key issues involving safety, performance, cost, charging time and durability restrict the mass market adoption of electric vehicles. Cold-temperature operation of Li-ion batteries is currently a subject of major research efforts in industry and academia. The effects of low temperature reduce the available energy of the battery and increase its internal impedance. Moreover, Li-ion batteries experience serious degradation mechanisms at low temperatures, strongly affecting performance, which poses difficulties for cold-climate countries. In this work, a battery-in-the-loop experiment has been set up to estimate and analyze Li-ion battery cold start range at temperatures down to -40°C. This experimental setup is connected to the open integration and test platform CarMaker from IPG Automotive to evaluate cold start range both through standardized automotive duty cycles and within a virtual test environment designed to replicate real-world test driving. In…
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Ion Current Comparison in Small, Fast Running Gasoline Engines for Non-Automotive Applications

ANDREAS STIHL AG & Co. KG-Martin Arenz
Graz University of Technology-Riccardo Basso, Gabriel Gruber, Pascal Piecha, Hans-Juergen Schacht, Stephan Schmidt
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Small engines for non-automotive applications include 2-stroke and 4-stroke gasoline engine concepts which have a reduced number of sensors due to cost and packaging constraints. In order to cope with future emission regulations, more sophisticated engine control and monitoring becomes mandatory. Therefore, a cost-effective way has to be found to gain maximum information from the existing sensors and actuators. Due to an increasing bio-fuel share in the market, the detection of bio-fuel content is necessary to guarantee a stable combustion by adapting the injection and ignition control strategy.Meaningful information about the combustion can be retrieved from combustion chamber ion current measurements. This paper proposes a general overview of combustion process monitoring in different engine concepts by measuring the ion current during combustion. Actually, the ion current measurement technique is not yet established in the automotive sector due to the presence of other more accurate and less signal analysis intense sensors as the oxygen and knock sensor. But in small non-automotive applications the ion current could be beneficial for a dynamic control of the engine, due…
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Influence of Ethanol and 2-Butanol Blended Fuels on Combustion and Emissions in a Small Displacement Two Stroke Engine

Andreas Stihl AG & Co. KG-Tilman Seidel
Graz University of Technology-Stephan Jandl, Stephan Schmidt, Pascal Piecha, Hans-Juergen Schacht
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Small displacement two-stroke engines are cheap and low-maintenance propulsion systems and commonly used in scooters, recreation vehicles and handheld power-tools. The restriction by emission legislation and the increasing environmental awareness of end users as well as decreasing energy resources cause a rethinking in the development of propulsion systems and fuels in these fields. Despite recent improvements of electric powertrains, two stroke engines are the challenged propulsion system in high performance handheld power tools at the moment. The reasons are the extraordinary high power to weight ratio of two-stroke engines, the high energy density of liquid fuels and the reliability of the product with respect to extreme ambient conditions. Nevertheless, further improvements on emissions and fuel consumption of small displacement two-stroke engines can be realized.This research is focused on the use of alternative renewable fuels, so called biofuels, like ethanol and 2-butanol in small displacement two-stroke engines. The different physical and chemical properties of ethanol and 2-butanol can have a positive impact on the combustion process and emission composition and are a possibility to contribute future…
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Practicability and Influencing Factors of a Lean Burn Mode for Two-Stroke Engines in Hand-Held Powertools

Andreas Stihl AG & Co KG-Florian Schumann, Tim Gegg
Graz University of Technology-Pascal Piecha, Christoph Ninaus, Stephan Schmidt, Roland Kirchberger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2017-32-0043
Published 2017-11-05 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
For many applications, such as scooters, hand-held power tools and many off-road vehicles, two-stroke engines are used as a preferred propulsion unit. These engines convince by a good power to weight ratio, a high durability and low maintenance technology and are therefore the first choice in this field of application. In general, already much development effort has been expended to improve those systems. However, an increasing environmental awareness, the protection of health and the shortage of fossil resources are the driving factors to further enhance the internal combustion process of those adapted two-stroke engines. The current focus here is on the reduction of emissions and fuel consumption with an at least constant power output.An approach to address an improvement of engine efficiency can be covered by applying a lean combustion burn mode. In almost all combustion technology sectors, including furnaces, gas turbines and many internal combustion engines, a lean combustion is utilized. Possible advantages of a combustion process under lean conditions are low pollutant emissions and high efficiencies, because flame temperatures are typically low. Nevertheless,…
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Investigations and Analysis of Working Processes of Two-Stroke Engines with the Focus on Wall Heat Flux

SAE International Journal of Engines

Andreas Stihl AG & Co KG-Florian Schumann, Stephan Meyer, Tim Gegg
BRP-Powertrain GmbH & Co KG-Stefan Leiber
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-32-0028
Published 2016-11-08 by SAE International in United States
Small displacement two-stroke engines are widely used as affordable and low-maintenance propulsion systems for motorcycles, scooters, hand-held power tools and others. In recent years, considerable progress regarding emission reduction has been reached. Nevertheless, a further improvement of two-stroke engines is necessary to cover protection of health and environment. In addition, the shortage of fossil fuel resources and the anthropogenic climate change call for a sensual use of natural resources and therefore, the fuel consumption and engine efficiency needs to be improved.With the application of suitable analyses methods it is possible to find improving potential of the working processes of these engines. The thermodynamic loss analysis is a frequently applied method to examine the working process and is universally adaptable. Within this paper, a series production small displacement two-stroke engine is experimentally investigated on the test bench and adapted with measuring equipment in order to analyze the working process with focus on the wall heat flux. Due to high speed and vibrations, these investigations are complex. This publication considers an assessment of correlation predictability of heat…
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