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Experimental Test on the Feasibility of Passive Regeneration in a Catalytic DPF at the Exhaust of a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

Universita Degli Studi Di Salerno-Bruno Rossomando, Ivan Arsie, Eugenio Meloni, Vincenzo Palma, Cesare Pianese
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0045
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Diesel engines are attractive thanks to good performance in terms of fuel consumption, drivability, power output and efficiency. Nevertheless in the last years, increasing restrictions have been imposed to particulate emissions, concerning both mass (PM) and number (PN). Different technologies have been proposed to meet emissions standards and the wall-flow Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is currently the most common after-treatment system used to trap PM from the exhaust gases. This technology exhibits good features such that it can be regenerated to remove any accumulation of PM. However, this process involves oxidation of the filtered PM at a high temperature through after and post fuel injection strategies, which results in an increase of fuel consumption and may lead to physical damages of the filter in the long term.This work deals with the experimental testing of a catalytic silicon carbide (SiC) wall flow DPF, aiming at decreasing the soot oxidation temperature. The catalyst (CuFe2O4) was deposited on the filter by means of an optimized procedure based on a preliminary controlled chemical erosion of the SiC porous structure.…
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A Comprehensive Hybrid Vehicle Model for Energetic Analyses on Different Powertrain Architectures

Universita degli Studi di Salerno-Davide Cervone, Bernardo Sessa, Ivan Arsie, Cesare Pianese, Pierpaolo Polverino
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0064
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
In the global quest for preventing fossil fuel depletion and reducing air pollution, hybridization plays a fundamental role to achieve cleaner and more fuel-efficient automotive propulsion systems.While hybrid powertrains offer many opportunities, they also present new developmental challenges. Due to the many variants and possible architectures, development issues, such as the definition of powertrain concepts and the optimization of operating strategies, are becoming more and more important.The paper presents model-based fuel economy analyses of different hybrid vehicle configurations, depending on the position of the electric motor generator (EMG). The analyses are intended to support the design of powertrain architecture and the components sizing, depending on the driving scenario, with the aim of reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.The analyses are performed making use of a comprehensive vehicle model, based on a hybrid (black-box and lumped parameters) approach, of a medium passenger car equipped with a turbocharged Diesel engine. The model has been enhanced to account for the additional components of two different powertrain configurations: one with the EMG directly coupled to the crankshaft and the…
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Modelling and Control of a Novel Clutchless Multiple-Speed Transmission for Electric Vehicles

Mecaprom SRL-Mauro Grandone, Alberto Lega, Michele Pennese
University of Salerno-Ludovica Malafronte, Cesare Pianese
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0063
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Conventional electric vehicles adopt either single-speed transmissions or direct drive architecture in order to reduce cost, losses and mass. However, the integration of optimized multiple-speed transmissions is considered as a feasible method to enhance EVs performances, (i.e. top speed, acceleration and grade climbing), improving powertrain efficiency, saving battery energy and reducing customer costs. Perfectly in line with these objectives, this paper presents a patented fully integrated electric traction system, as scalable solution for electrifying light duty passenger and commercial vehicles (1.5-4.2 tons), with a focus on minibuses (<20 seats). The adoption of high-speed motor coupled to multiple-speed transmission offers the possibility of a relevant efficiency improvement, a 50% volume reduction with respect to a traditional transmission, superior output torque and power density.The proposed clutchless four-speed transmission is specifically conceived and designed to have the good matching with the traction electric motor. Indeed, clutches and synchronizers are not required thanks to the small inertia of the traction motor and its fast regulation in both torque and speed mode (torque modulation process). Therefore, an advanced shifting control…
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Development and Experimental Validation of a Control Oriented Model of a Catalytic DPF

Università di Salerno-Federica D'Aniello, Bruno Rossomando, Ivan Arsie, Cesare Pianese
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
1The wall-flow Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is currently the most common after-treatment system used to meet the particulate emissions regulations for automotive engines. Today’s technology shows the best balance between filtration efficiency and back-pressure in the engine exhaust pipe. During the accumulation phase the pressure drop across the filter increases, thus requiring periodic regeneration of the DPF through after and post fuel injection strategies. This paper deals with the development of a control oriented model of a catalytic silicon carbide (SiC) wall flow DPFs with CuFe2O4 loading for automotive Diesel engines. The model is intended to be used for the real-time management of the regeneration process, depending on back-pressure and thermal state. In order to ensure suitable computational demand and to realize emissions control and fuel economy objectives, the 0-D model has been developed with the aim of investigating the essential behavior of the system, such as the chemical kinetic of filtered soot oxidation, the thermal and backpressure dynamics along accumulation and regeneration processes. Parameters identification and model validation have been performed vs. experimental data…
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Enhancing Cruise Controllers through Finite-Horizon Driving Mission Optimization for Passenger Vehicles

University of Salerno-Antonio D'Amato, Fabrizio Donatantonio, Ivan Arsie, Cesare Pianese
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
In the last few years, several studies have proved the benefits of exploiting information about the road topography ahead of the vehicle to adapt vehicle cruising for fuel consumption reduction. Recent technologies have brought on-board more road information enabling the optimization of the driving profile for fuel economy improvement.In the present paper, a cruise controller able to lowering vehicle fuel consumption taking into account the characteristics of the road the vehicle is traveling through is presented. The velocity profile is obtained by minimizing via discrete dynamic programming the energy spent to move the vehicle. In order to further enhance vehicle fuel efficiency, also the gear shifting schedule is optimized, allowing to avoid useless gear shifts and choose the most suitable gear to match current road load and keeping the engine in its maximum efficiency range. Despite the optimality of the solution provided, dynamic programming entails high computational time. Moreover, it is unlikely to have the a-priori knowledge of the entire route. To deal with these issues, the optimization problem is solved over a receding horizon…
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Experimental Testing of a Low Temperature Regenerating Catalytic DPF at the Exhaust of a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

University of Salerno-Bruno Rossomando, Ivan Arsie, Eugenio Meloni, Vincenzo Palma, Cesare Pianese
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The wall-flow Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is currently the most common after-treatment system used to meet the particulate emission limits imposed by government regulations. Today’s technology shows the best balance between filtration efficiency and back-pressure in the engine exhaust pipe. Conventional filters consist in alternately plugged parallel square channels, so that the exhaust gases flow through the porous inner walls leading to particles trapping. During the accumulation phase the pressure drop across the filter increases, thus requiring periodic regeneration of the DPF through after and post fuel injection strategies.This paper deals with the experimental testing of a catalytic silicon carbide (SiC) wall flow DPFs with CuFe2O4 loading. The filter was built following an optimized procedure based on a preliminary controlled chemical erosion of the SiC porous structure. Such method allows increasing the initial average pore diameter of the bare filters and consequently the deposition of higher catalyst load without affecting the pressure drop.The experimental tests were performed at the exhaust of a EURO V light-duty Diesel engine, operating at different speed/load conditions. The results exhibit…
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Development and Experimental Validation of a Control Oriented Model of SCR for Automotive Application

Magneti Marelli SpA-Matteo De Cesare, Luigi Paiano
Università di Salerno-Ivan Arsie, Federica D'Aniello, Cesare Pianese
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
1The Selective Catalytic reduction (SCR) using urea as reducing agent is currently regarded as the most promising after-treatment technology in order to comply with strict RDE targets for NOX and particulate in Diesel application. Model-based control strategies are promising to satisfy the demands of high NOX conversion efficiency and low tailpipe ammonia slip.This paper deals with the development of a control oriented model of a Cu-zeolite urea-SCR system for automotive Diesel engines. The model is intended to be used for the real-time urea-SCR management, depending on engine NOX emissions and ammonia storage. In order to ensure suitable computational demand for the on-board implementation, a reduced order one-state model of ammonia storage has been derived from a quasi-dimensional four-state model of the urea-SCR plant. The model has been developed with the aim of investigating the essential behavior of the system, such as the ammonia coverage ratio dynamics, to realize emission control objectives.In the paper, particular attention is devoted to parameters identification and model validation, which have been performed vs. experimental data measured at the engine test…
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Control Oriented Modeling of SCR Systems for Automotive Application

Magneti Marelli SpA Powertrain-Matteo De Cesare, Luigi Paiano
Università di Salerno-Ivan Arsie, Giuseppe Cialeo, Federica D'Aniello, Cesare Pianese
Published 2017-09-04 by SAE International in United States
In the last decades, NOx emissions legislations for Diesel engines are becoming more stringent than ever before and the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is considered as the most suitable technology to comply with the upcoming constraints. Model-based control strategies are promising to meet the dual objective of maximizing NOx reduction and minimizing NH3 slip in urea-selective catalytic reduction.In this paper, a control oriented model of a Cu-zeolite urea-SCR system for automotive diesel engines is presented. The model is derived from a quasi-dimensional four-state model of the urea-SCR plant. To make it suitable for the real-time urea-SCR management, a reduced order one-state model has been developed, with the aim of capturing the essential behavior of the system with a low computational burden. Particularly, the model allows estimating the NH3 slip that is fundamental not only to minimize urea consumption but also to reduce this unregulated emission.Parameters identification and model validation have been performed vs. simulation data achieved by a commercial code of the SCR system, based on the four-state quasi-dimensional modeling approach. The accuracy of the…
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Development of a Cruise Controller Based on Current Road Load Information with Integrated Control of Variable Velocity Set-Point and Gear Shifting

University of Salerno-Antonio D'Amato, Fabrizio Donatantonio, Ivan Arsie, Cesare Pianese
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Road topography has a remarkable impact on vehicle fuel consumption for both passenger and heavy duty vehicles. In addition, erroneous or non-optimized scheduling of both velocity set-point and gear shifting may be detrimental for fuel consumption and performance. Recent technologies have made road data, such as elevation or slope, either available or measurable on board, thus making possible the exploitation of this additional information in innovative controllers.The aim of this paper is the development of a smart, fuel-economy oriented controller adapting cruising speed and engaged gear to current road load (i.e. local slope). Unlike traditional cruise controllers, the velocity set-point is not constant, but it is set by applying a mathematical transformation of the current slope, accounting for the mission time duration as well. A smart shifting logic operation has also been implemented according to the following rules: i) avoid excessive shifting; ii) choose suitable gear to deal with road load while iii) respecting engine operation constraints and iv) keep the engine speed in its maximum efficiency range. Furthermore, in order to enhance fuel economy,…
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Air-Fuel Ratio and Trapped Mass Estimation in Diesel Engines Using In-Cylinder Pressure

Magneti Marelli Powertrain-Matteo De Cesare
Università di Salerno-Ivan Arsie, Rocco Di Leo, Cesare Pianese
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The development of more affordable sensors together with the enhancement of computation features in current Engine Management Systems (EMS), makes the in-cylinder pressure sensing a suitable methodology for the on-board engine control and diagnosis. Since the 1960’s the in-cylinder pressure signal was employed to investigate the combustion process of the internal combustion engines for research purposes. Currently, the sensors cost reduction in addition to the need to comply with the strict emissions legislation has promoted a large-scale diffusion on production engines equipment.The in-cylinder pressure signal offers the opportunity to estimate with high dynamic response almost all the variables of interest for an effective engine combustion control even in case of non-conventional combustion processes (e.g. PCCI, HCCI, LTC). Furthermore, the accuracy of feed-forward control methodologies along real-life operation is affected by engine aging and production tolerances as well as environmental and driving conditions. Consequently, the control adaption through the feedback based on the in-cylinder pressure allows overcoming these issues.In this paper the features of two methodologies based on the in-cylinder pressure signal for the estimation of…
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