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Parker, Gordon G.
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A Modeling Study of an Advanced Ultra-low NOx Aftertreatment System

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Michigan Technological University, USA-Venkata Rajesh Chundru, John H. Johnson, Gordon G. Parker
  • Journal Article
  • 04-13-01-0003
Published 2020-01-09 by SAE International in United States
The 2010 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Emission Standard for heavy-duty engines required 0.2 g/bhp-hr over certification cycles (cold and hot Federal Test Procedure [FTP]), and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) standards require upto 90% reduction of overall oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions. Similar reductions may be considered by the EPA through its Cleaner Trucks Initiative program. In this article, aftertreatment system components consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC); a selective catalytic reduction catalyst on a diesel particulate filter (DPF), or SCR-F; a second DOC (DOC2); and a SCR along with two urea injectors have been analyzed, which could be part of an aftertreatment system that can achieve the 0.02 g/bhp-hr standard. The system performance was evaluated using validated one-dimensional (1D) DOC, two-dimensional (2D) SCR-F, and 1D SCR models at various combinations of inlet ammonia (NH3)-to-NOx ratio (ANR) values for the SCR-F and the SCR to determine the injection rates required to achieve an optimum nitrogen dioxide (NO2)/NOx ratio at the inlets of both the SCR-F and the SCR. A strategy was developed that…
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The Effect of NO2/NOx Ratio on the Performance of a SCR Downstream of a SCR Catalyst on a DPF

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Michigan Technological University, USA-Venkata Rajesh Chundru, Gordon G. Parker, John H. Johnson
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-02-0008
Published 2019-06-14 by SAE International in United States
Different aftertreatment systems consisting of a combination of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and SCR catalyst on a diesel particulate filter (DPF) (SCR-F) are being developed to meet future oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions standards being set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB). One such system consisting of a SCRF® with a downstream SCR was used in this research to determine the system NOx reduction performance using experimental data from a 2013 Cummins 6.7L ISB (Interact System B) diesel engine and model data. The contribution of the three SCR reactions on NOx reduction performance in the SCR-F and the SCR was determined based on the modeling work. The performance of a SCR was simulated with a one-dimensional (1D) SCR model. A NO2/NOx ratio of 0.5 was found to be optimum for maximizing the NOx reduction and minimizing NH3 slip for the SCR for a given value of ammonia-to-NOx ratio (ANR). The SCRF® + SCR system was simulated using the 2D SCR-F + 1D SCR system model. For all the…
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Optimal Power Management of Vehicle Sourced Military Outposts

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Michigan Technological University-Robert Jane, Gordon G. Parker, Wayne Weaver, Ronald Matthews, Michael Cook
US Army TARDEC-Denise Rizzo
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0271
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
This paper considers optimal power management during the establishment of an expeditionary outpost using battery and vehicle assets for electrical generation. The first step in creating a new outpost is implementing the physical protection and barrier system. Afterwards, facilities that provide communications, fires, meals, and moral boosts are implemented that steadily increase the electrical load while dynamic events, such as patrols, can cause abrupt changes in the electrical load profile. Being able to create a fully functioning outpost within 72 hours is a typical objective where the electrical power generation starts with batteries, transitions to gasoline generators and is eventually replaced by diesel generators as the outpost matures. Vehicles with power export capability are an attractive supplement to this electrical power evolution since they are usually on site, would reduce the amount of material for outpost creation, and provide a modular approach to outpost build-up. Military vehicles have the attributes of a microgrid and when connected produce a scalable power generation capability [1]. For example, each vehicle could power a subset of the outpost’s build-up…
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Fuel-Optimal Strategies for Vehicle Supported Military Microgrids

Michigan Technological Univ.-Robert S. Jane, Gordon G. Parker, Wayne Weaver
US Army TARDEC-Denise M. Rizzo
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Vehicles with power exporting capability are microgrids since they possess electrical power generation, onboard loads, energy storage, and the ability to interconnect. The unique load and silent watch requirements of some military vehicles make them particularly well-suited to augment stationary power grids to increase power resiliency and capability. Connecting multiple vehicles in a peer-to-peer arrangement or to a stationary grid requires scalable power management strategies to accommodate the possibly large numbers of assets. This paper describes a military ground vehicle power management scheme for vehicle-to-grid applications. The particular focus is overall fuel consumption reduction of the mixed asset inventory of military vehicles with diesel generators typically used in small unit outposts. By exploiting peak efficiency operation of the diesel generators and the vehicle’s energy storage systems, the total fuel consumption can be reduced over a typical daily outpost load cycle. While military vehicle energy storage requirements are dominated by silent watch objectives, this work adds another dimension to the objective set to include outpost fuel consumption. Motivated by these requirements, an extensible MATLAB/Simulink simulation of…
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Development of the Enhanced Vehicle and Engine Cooling System Simulation and Application to Active Cooling Control

Michigan Technological University-Brian J. Luptowski, Oner Arici, John H. Johnson, Gordon G. Parker
Published 2005-04-11 by SAE International in United States
The increasing complexity of vehicle engine cooling systems results in additional system interactions. Design and evaluation of such systems and related interactions requires a fully coupled detailed engine and cooling system model. The Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation (VECSS) developed at Michigan Technological University was enhanced by linking with GT-POWER for the engine/cycle analysis model. Enhanced VECSS (E-VECSS) predicts the effects of cooling system performance on engine performance including accessory power and fuel conversion efficiency. Along with the engine cycle, modeled components include the engine manifolds, turbocharger, radiator, charge-air-cooler, engine oil circuit, oil cooler, cab heater, coolant pump, thermostat, and fan. This tool was then applied to develop and simulate an actively controlled electric cooling system for a 12.7 liter diesel engine.
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Vehicle Engine Aftertreatment System Simulation (VEASS) Model: Application to a Controls Design Strategy for Active Regeneration of a Catalyzed Particulate Filter

Michigan Technological University-Nishant Singh, John H. Johnson, Gordon G. Parker, Song-Lin Yang
Published 2005-04-11 by SAE International in United States
Heavy-duty diesel engine particulate matter (PM) emissions must be reduced from 0.1 to 0.01 grams per brake horsepower-hour by 2007 due to EPA regulations [1]. A catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) is used to capture PM in the exhaust stream, but as PM accumulates in the CPF, exhaust flow is restricted resulting in reduced horsepower and increased fuel consumption. PM must therefore be burned off, referred to as CPF regeneration. Unfortunately, nominal exhaust temperatures are not always high enough to cause stable self-regeneration when needed. One promising method for active CPF regeneration is to inject fuel into the exhaust stream upstream of an oxidation catalytic converter (OCC). The chemical energy released during the oxidation of the fuel in the OCC raises the exhaust temperature and allows regeneration. This approach facilitates active control of the regeneration process so that the CPF can be operated in a sufficiently clean state to maintain engine performance and fuel economy. Development of active regeneration control strategies is challenging since a balance must be struck between fuel consumption for the regeneration process,…
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A Study Describing the Performance of Diesel Particulate Filters During Loading and Regeneration - A Lumped Parameter Model for Control Applications

Aerosol & Particle Technology Laboratory, CERTH/CPERI, Thermi Thessaloniki, Greece-Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos
ME-EM Department, Michigan Technological University-Evdoxia A. Kladopoulou, Song L. Yang, John H. Johnson, Gordon G. Parker
Published 2003-03-03 by SAE International in United States
A computational lumped parameter model (MTU-Filter-Lumped) was developed to describe the performance of diesel particulate filters (DPFs) during loading and regeneration processes. The model was formulated combining three major sub-models: a filtration model, a pressure drop model, and a mass and an energy balance equation for the total filter volume. The first two sub-models have been widely validated in the literature, while the third sub-model is introduced and combined with the first two sub-models in the present study. The three sub-models combined can give a full description of diesel particulate filter behavior during loading and regeneration processes, which was the objective of the present work. The total combined lumped parameter model was calibrated using experimental data from the literature covering a range of experimental conditions, including different catalytic regeneration means and engine operating conditions. The model predictions showed very good agreement with the experimental data in terms of pressure drop across the filter, mass retained in the filter, and filter temperature. A diesel particulate filter system was selected to illustrate the control application of the…
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A Controlled EGR Cooling System for Heavy Duty Diesel Applications Using the Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation

Michigan Technological University-Robert D. Chalgren, Gordon G. Parker, Oner Arici, John H. Johnson
Published 2002-03-04 by SAE International in United States
In order to comply with 2002 EPA emissions regulations, cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) will be used by heavy duty (HD) diesel engine manufacturers as the primary means to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). A feedforward controlled EGR cooling system with a secondary electric water pump and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) feedback has been designed to cool the recirculated exhaust gas in order to better realize the benefits of EGR without overcooling the exhaust gas since overcooling leads to the fouling of the EGR cooler with acidic residues. A system without a variable controlled coolant flow rate is not able to achieve these goals because the exhaust temperature and the EGR schedule vary significantly, especially under transient and warm-up operating conditions. Simulation results presented in this paper have been determined using the Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation (VECSS) software, which has been developed and validated using actual engine data. Simulation results indicate that a controlled EGR cooling system can maintain the EGR cooler outlet exhaust temperature at 130±8°C, as compared to 110±60°C for an EGR cooling…
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