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Parenteau, Chantal
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Influence of DISH, Ankylosis, Spondylosis and Osteophytes on Serious-to-Fatal Spinal Fractures and Cord Injury in Rear Impacts

Collision Research & Analysis Inc.-Samuel White
ProBiomechanics LLC-David Viano, Chantal Parenteau
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Seats have become stronger over the past two decades and remain more upright in rear impacts. While head restraints are higher and more forward providing support for the head and neck, serious-to-fatal injuries to the thoracic and cervical spine have been seen in occupants with spinal disorders, such as DISH (diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis), ankylosis, spondylosis and/or osteophytes that ossify the joints in the spine. This case study addresses the influence of spinal disorders on fracture-dislocation and spinal cord injury in rear impacts with relatively upright seats. Nineteen field accidents were investigated where serious-to-fatal injuries of the thoracic and cervical spine occurred with the seat remaining upright or slightly reclined. The occupants were lap-shoulder belted, some with belt pretensioning and cinching latch plate. The occupants were older and had pre-existing disorders of the spine, including DISH, ankylosis, spondylosis and/or osteophytes that ossify the spinal joints. The crashes were summarized and the mechanism for injury was analyzed. The 19 cases involved fracture-dislocation and spinal cord injury at areas of the spine where DISH, ankylosis, spondylosis and/or…
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Quantification of Sternum Morphomics and Injury Data

Chantal Parenteau
General Motors-Barbara Bunn, Suzanne Johannson
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Crash safety researchers have an increased concern regarding the decreased thoracic deflection and the contributing injury causation factors among the elderly population. Sternum fractures are categorized as moderate severity injuries, but can have long term effects depending on the fragility and frailty of the occupant. Current research has provided detail on rib morphology, but very little information on sternum morphology, sternum fracture locations, and mechanisms of injury. The objective of this study is two-fold (1) quantify sternum morphology and (2) document sternum fracture locations using computed tomography (CT) scans and crash data. Thoracic CT scans from the University of Michigan Hospital database were used to measure thoracic depth, manubriosternal joint, sternum thickness and bone density. The sternum fracture locations and descriptions were extracted from 63 International Center for Automotive Medicine (ICAM) crash cases, of which 22 cases had corresponding CT scans. The University of Michigan Internal Review Board (HUM00043599 and HUM00041441) approved the use of crash cases and CT scan data.The sternum morphomics data showed the thoracic depth increased, except for the 60-74-year-old age group.…
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Analysis of Rear Seat Sled Tests with the 5th Female Hybrid III: Incorrect Conclusions in Bidez et al. SAE 2005-01-1708

ProBiomechanics LLC-David Viano, Chantal Parenteau
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Objective: Sled test video and data were independently analyzed to assess the validity of statements and conclusions reported in Bidez et al. SAE paper 2005-01-1708 [7].Method: An independent review and analysis of the test data and video was conducted for 9 sled tests at 35 km/h (21.5 mph). The 5th female Hybrid III was lap-shoulder belted in the 2nd or 3rd row seat of a SUV buck. For one series, the angle was varied from 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 deg PDOF. The second series involved shoulder belt pretensioning and other belt modifications.Results: Bidez et al. [7] claimed “The lap belts moved up and over the pelvis of the small female dummy for all impact angles tested.” We found that there was no submarining in any of the tests with the production lap-shoulder belts. Bidez et al. [7] claimed “H3-5F dummies began to roll out of their shoulder belt at… 30 degrees. Complete loss of torso support was seen at 45 degrees without significant kinetic energy dissipation.” We found that the shoulder belt remained…
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Lumbar Spine Fractures in Undercarriage Impacts: Analysis of 1997-2015 NASS-CDS

ProBiomechanics LLC-David C. Viano, Chantal Parenteau
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Objective: This is a descriptive study of the incidence of spinal injury by crash type using NASS-CDS. It provides an understanding of impacts to the undercarriage of the vehicle and injuries to the lumbar spine by reviewing electronic cases in NASS-CDS to determine crash circumstances for fractures of the lumbar spine with undercarriage impacts.Methods: 1997-2015 NASS-CDS was evaluated for serious injury (MAIS 3 + F) to front-seat occupants by seatbelt use and crash type in 1994+ MY vehicles. Undercarriage impacts were defined by GAD1 = U without a rollover. Serious injury was defined as MAIS 3 + F. Spinal injuries AIS 3+ were separated into cervical, thoracic and lumbar regions. Weighted data was determined using ratio weight. NASS-CDS electronic cases were downloaded from NHTSA with AIS 3+ lumbar spine injuries in undercarriage impacts.Results: There were 2,160 MAIS 3 + F injured occupants in undercarriage impacts. This was 0.23% of all serious injury. There were 914 (42.3%) AIS 3+ spinal injuries in undercarriage impacts with 88.3% in the lumbar spine. The 807 lumbar spine injuries represented 4.1% of all AIS 3+ spinal injury. There were…
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Abdominal Injuries in Frontal Crashes: Influence of Occupant Age and Seating Position

ProBiomechanics LLC-Chantal Parenteau
ProBiomechanics, LLC-David C. Viano
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Objective: This study investigated the incidence of abdominal injuries in frontal crashes by occupant age and seating position. It determined the risk for abdominal injury (AIS 2+) by organ and injury source.Methods: 1997-2015 NASS-CDS was analyzed to estimate the occurrence of abdominal injuries in non-ejected, belted occupants involved in frontal crashes. Vehicles were included with 1997+ model year (MY). The annual incidence and rate for different types of abdominal injury were estimated with standard errors. The sources for abdominal injury were determined.Results: 77.8% of occupants were drivers, 16.7% were right-front passengers and 5.4% were rear passengers. Rear passengers accounted for 77.1% of 8-11 year old (yo) and 17.2% of 12-17 yo group. The risk for moderate abdominal injury (MAIS 2 + abdo) was 0.30% ± 0.053% in drivers, 0.32% ± 0.086% in right-front passengers and 0.38% ± 0.063% in rear occupants. The risk of MAIS 2 + abdo was highest at 0.76% ± 0.30% in the 60-84 yo group for right-front passengers and in the 85+ yo group and 8-11 yo children for rear passengers. The liver and spleen had the highest abdominal injury risk in drivers, the…
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The Effect of Age on Fat and Bone Properties along the Vertebral Spine

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

University of Michigan-Chantal Parenteau, Sven Holcombe, Peng Zhang, Carla Kohoyda-Inglis, Stewart Wang
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1244
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The human body changes as it becomes older. The automotive safety community has been interested in understanding the effect of aging on restraint performance. Recent research has been focused on assessing the structural and material changes associated with age. In this study, structural tissue distribution was determined using the computed tomography (CT) scan data of more than 19,000 patients, aged 16 and up. The data consisted of subcutaneous fat cross-sectional area, visceral fat cross-sectional area, and trabecular bone density taken at each vertebral level. The data was quantified as a function of five age groups with the youngest group defined as 16-29 years old and the oldest group as 75 and up. An additional analysis stratified on gender was carried out.Overall, visceral fat increased with age. Compared to the 16-29 group, the visceral fat measured at the L1 level was 1.97 in the 30-44 group, 2.55 in the 45-59 group, 3.33 in the 60-74 group and 3.21 times greater in the 75+ group. Subcutaneous fat also increased with age up to the 60-74-year-old group. The…
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ERRATUM: Basilar Skull Fractures by Crash Type and Injury Source

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

ProBiomechanics LLC-Chantal Parenteau, David C. Viano
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-1126ERR
Published 2012-07-15 by SAE International in United States
The legends of Table 6 and Table 7, found on pages 924 and 925, did not properly reference multiple characters used within the tables.
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Rear Impact Tests of Starcraft-Type Seats with Out-of-Position and In-Position Dummies

Ford Motor Company-Roger Burnett
ProBiomechanics LLC-David C. Viano, Chantal Parenteau
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Objective: This study analyzed available rear impact sled tests with Starcraft-type seats that use a diagonal belt behind the seatback. The study focused on neck responses for out-of-position (OOP) and in-position seated dummies. Methods: Thirteen rear sled tests were identified with out-of-position and in-position 5 th , 50 th and 95 th Hybrid III dummies in up to 47.6 mph rear delta Vs involving Starcraft-type seats. The tests were conducted at Ford, Exponent and CSE. Seven KARCO rear sled tests were found with in-position 5 th and 50 th Hybrid III dummies in 21.1-29.5 mph rear delta Vs involving Starcraft-type seats. In all of the in-position and one of the out-of-position series, comparable tests were run with production seats. Biomechanical responses of the dummies and test videos were analyzed. Results: When the head or upper body was unsupported in a severe rear impact with an upright Starcraft-type seat, neck extension moments were as high as 4.4-times IARV (Injury Assessment Reference Value). When the head, neck and torso was fully supported during the test, the responses…
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Basilar Skull Fractures by Crash Type and Injury Source

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

ProBiomechanics LLC-Chantal Parenteau, David C. Viano
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-1126
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Purpose: This study investigates NASS-CDS data on basilar skull fractures by crash type and injury source for various crash scenarios to understand the injury risks, injury mechanisms and contact sources.Methods: 1993-2008 NASS-CDS data was used to study basilar skull fractures in adult front occupants by crash type and injury source. Injury risks were determined using weighted data for occupants with known injury status in 1994+ model year vehicles. In-depth analysis was made of far-side occupants in side impacts and rear crashes using the NASS electronic cases.Results: Basilar skull fractures occur in 0.507 ± 0.059% of rollovers and 0.255 ± 0.025% of side impacts. The lowest risk is in rear impacts at 0.015 ± 0.007%. The most common contact source is the roof, side rails and header (39.0%) in rollovers, the B-pillar (25.8%) in side impacts and head restraint (55.3%) in rear crashes. Seatbelt use significantly lowers the risk for basilar fracture from 1.77 ± 0.32% for unbelted to 0.20 ± 0.03% for belted (p ≺0.001) near-side occupants and from 0.92 ± 0.19% for unbelted to…
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Sled Test Results Using the Hybrid III 6 Year Old: An Evaluation of Various Restraints and Crash Configurations

Delphi Corporation-Annette Malott, Chantal Parenteau
The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia-Kristy Arbogast, Shresta Mari-gowda
Published 2004-03-08 by SAE International in United States
Data suggest that in response to substantial educational efforts, more children are being placed in the rear seats of vehicles. As this transition occurs, it is important to make efforts to optimize the performance of rear seat restraints for children. Prior to developing new restraints for children for the rear seat, a better understanding of child responses in various crash scenarios is needed.The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of various restraint systems and countermeasures for child occupants in different crash scenarios. Sled tests were carried out with a Hybrid III 6 year old anthropomorphic test device (ATD) in frontal, oblique and side impact configurations. The performance of a highback and a backless booster seat was assessed. The results were compared with two standard 3 point belt restraint systems: 1. a package shelf mounted belt, and 2. a C-pillar mounted belt. The benefit of adding a shoulder guide and shoulder/lap belt guides to the C-pillar system was also evaluated.Results indicated that in the frontal and oblique testing there was no clear “best…
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