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Degradation Testing and Modeling of 200 Ah LiFePO4 Battery

University of Waterloo-Satyam Panchal, Mahir Rashid, Frank Long, Manoj Mathew, Roydon Fraser, Michael Fowler
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, a degradation testing of a lithium-ion battery used for an electric vehicle (EV) is performed and the capacity fade is measured over 400 cycles. For this, a 200 Ah LiFePO4 battery cell is tested under ambient temperature conditions with charge-discharge cycles at rate of 1C (constant current). Additionally, individual cell characterization is conducted using a C/25 (0.8A) charge-discharge cycle and hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC). Later, the Thevenin battery model was constructed in MATLAB along with an empirical degradation model and validated in terms of voltage for all cycles. It is also found that the presented model closely estimated the profiles observed in the experimental data. Data collected from the experimental results showed that a capacity fade occurred over the 400 cycles and the discharge capacity at the end of 400th cycle is found to be 137.73 Ah. The error between model/experiments is found to be less than 3.5% for all cycles.
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Measurement of Temperature Gradient (dT/dy) and Temperature Response (dT/dt) of a Prismatic Lithium-Ion Pouch Cell with LiFePO4 Cathode Material

University of Waterloo-Satyam Panchal, Scott Mathewson, Roydon Fraser, Richard Culham, Michael Fowler
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Lithium-ion batteries, which are nowadays common in laptops, cell phones, toys, and other portable electronic devices, are also viewed as a most promising advanced technology for electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs), but battery manufacturers and automakers must understand the performance of these batteries when they are scaled up to the large sizes needed for the propulsion of the vehicle. In addition, accurate thermo-physical property input is crucial to thermal modeling. Therefore, a designer must study the thermal characteristics of batteries for improvement in the design of a thermal management system and also for thermal modeling. This work presents a purely experimental thermal characterization in terms of measurement of the temperature gradient and temperature response of a lithium-ion battery utilizing a promising electrode material, LiFePO4, in a prismatic pouch configuration. The experiment was designed to obtain thermal images of the LiFePO4 cell to qualitatively evaluate the thermal behaviour and temperature distribution with IR (Infrared Radiation) imaging technique at different discharge rates of 2C, 3C, and 4C. A “FLIR System” Therma CAM model S60…
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Thermal Management of Lithium-Ion Pouch Cell with Indirect Liquid Cooling using Dual Cold Plates Approach

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

University of Waterloo-Satyam Panchal, Scott Mathewson, Roydon Fraser, Richard Culham, Michael Fowler
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-1184
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The performance, life cycle cost, and safety of electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) depend strongly on their energy storage system. Advanced batteries such as lithium-ion (Li-ion) polymer batteries are quite viable options for storing energy in EVs and HEVs. In addition, thermal management is essential for achieving the desired performance and life cycle from a particular battery. Therefore, to design a thermal management system, a designer must study the thermal characteristics of batteries. The thermal characteristics that are needed include the surface temperature distribution, heat flux, and the heat generation from batteries under various charge/discharge profiles. Therefore, in the first part of the research, surface temperature distribution from a lithium-ion pouch cell (20Ah capacity) is studied under different discharge rates of 1C, 2C, 3C, and 4C. In the second part of the research, the total heat generation from a particular battery is obtained under different discharge rates (1C, 2C, 3C, and 4C) and different boundary conditions (cooling bath temperature of 5°C, 15°C, 25°C, and 35°C). In the third part of the research,…
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Experimental Measurements of Thermal Characteristics of LiFePO4 Battery

University of Waterloo-Satyam Panchal, Scott Mathewson, Roydon Fraser, Richard Culham, Michael Fowler
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A major challenge in the development of the next generation electric and hybrid electric vehicle (EV and HEV) technology is the control and management of heat generation and operating temperatures. Vehicle performance, reliability and ultimately consumer market adoption are integrally dependent on successful battery thermal management designs. In addition to this, crucial to thermal modeling is accurate thermo-physical property input. Therefore, to design a thermal management system and for thermal modeling, a designer must study the thermal characteristics of batteries. This work presents a purely experimental thermal characterization of thermo-physical properties of a lithium-ion battery utilizing a promising electrode material, LiFePO4, in a prismatic pouch configuration. In this research, the thermal resistance and corresponding thermal conductivity of prismatic battery materials is evaluated. The experiment was designed to measure the thermal conductivity of both the individual electrode layers, and the overall thermal resistance of the sealed prismatic structure. For this experiment, the first step was battery dissection, the second step was sample preparation and the third step was the measurement of thermal resistance. Thermal resistance measurements…
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Modeling and Evaluation of Li-Ion Battery Performance Based on the Electric Vehicle Field Tests

University of Waterloo-Ehsan Samadani, Siamak Farhad, Satyam Panchal, Roydon Fraser, Michael Fowler
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, initial results of Li-ion battery performance characterization through field tests are presented. A fully electrified Ford Escape that is equipped by three Li-ion battery packs (LiFeMnPO4) including an overall 20 modules in series is employed. The vehicle is in daily operation and data of driving including the powertrain and drive cycles as well as the charging data are being transferred through CAN bus to a data logger installed in the vehicle. A model of the vehicle is developed in the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) software based on the available technical specification of the vehicle components. In this model, a simple resistive element in series with a voltage source represents the battery. Battery open circuit voltage (OCV) and internal resistance in charge and discharge mode are estimated as a function of the state of charge (SOC) from the collected test data. It is shown that although the OCV should be measured under no-load condition, still it can be estimated with an acceptable accuracy (∼5%) from the driving data. Afterwards, performance of the…
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