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Determination of a Tyre’s Rolling Resistance Using Parallel Rheological Framework

University of Birmingham-Hamad Sarhan Aldhufairi, Oluremi Olatunbosun, Khamis Essa
Published 2019-06-20 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, rolling resistance sits at the core of tyre development goals because of its considerable effect on the car’s fuel economy. In contrast to the experimental method, the finite element (FE) method offers an inexpensive and efficient estimation technique. However, the FE technique is yet to be a fully developed product particularly for rolling-resistance estimation. An assessment is conducted to study the role of material viscoelasticity representation in FE, in linear and non-linear forms, through the use of Prony series and parallel rheological framework (PRF) models, respectively, on the tyre’s rolling-resistance calculation and its accuracy. A unique approach was introduced to estimate the rolling resistance according to the tyre’s hysteresis energy coefficient. The non-linear PRF choice resulted in rolling-resistance calculations that reasonably match that of the experimental work and the literature for various vertical load and inflation cases, whereas the Prony series option was found irresponsive to the tyre’s deformation in which it gave unreliable and infinitesimal outputs.
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Multi-Chamber Tire Concept for Low Rolling-Resistance

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

University of Birmingham, UK-Hamad Sarhan Aldhufairi, Khamis Essa, Oluremi Olatunbosun
  • Journal Article
  • 06-12-02-0009
Published 2019-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Rolling-resistance is leading the direction of numerous tire developments due to its significant effect on fuel consumption and CO2 emissions considering the vehicles in use globally. Many attempts were made to reduce rolling-resistance in vehicles, but with no or limited success due to tire complexity and trade-offs. This article investigates the concept of multiple chambers inside the tire as a potential alternative solution for reducing rolling-resistance. To accomplish that, novel multi-chamber designs were introduced and numerically simulated through finite-element (FE) modeling. The FE models were compared against a standard design as the baseline. The influences on rolling-resistance, grip, cornering, and mechanical comfort were studied. The multi-chambers tire model reduced rolling-resistance considerably with acceptable trade-offs. Independent air volumes isolating the tread from sidewalls would maintain tire’s profile effectively. Different air concentration across the tire’s chambers gave the tire extended versatility. Rolling non-uniformity depends upon inner-chambers’ stability, sidewalls’ flexibility and tire/chamber(s) integration.
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FE-Based Tire Loading Estimation for Developing Strain-Based Intelligent Tire System

Federal Highway Administration-Emmanuel Bolarinwa
Universidad Carlos III de Madrid-Daniel Garcia-Pozuelo
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The development of intelligent tire technology from concept to application covers multi-disciplinary fields. During the course of development, the computational method can play a significant role in understanding tire behavior, assisting in the design of the intelligent tire prototype system and in developing tire parameters estimation algorithm, etc. In this paper, a finite element tire model was adopted for developing a strain-based intelligent tire system. The finite element tire model was created considering the tire's composite structure and nonlinear properties of its constituent materials, and the FE model was also validated by physical tests. The FE model is used to study tire strain characteristics by steady state simulation for straight line rolling, traction and braking, as well as cornering. Tire loading conditions were estimated by feature extraction and data fitting. This process forms the fundamentals for identifying tire loadings from strain information at potential sensor locations. Finally, the pros and cons of applying finite element tire model in developing tire loading estimation algorithm are discussed. A perspective of the role of FE-based method in developing…
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Artificial Road Load Generation Using Artificial Neural Networks

University of Birmingham-Adebola Ogunoiki, Oluremi Olatunbosun
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This research proposes the use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to predict the road input for road load data generation for variants of a vehicle as vehicle parameters are modified. This is important to the design engineers while the vehicle variant is still in the initial stages of development, hence no prototypes are available and accurate proving ground data acquisition is not possible. ANNs are, with adequate training, capable of representing the complex relationships between inputs and outputs. This research explores the implementation of the ANN to predict road input for vehicle variants using a quarter vehicle test rig. The training and testing data for this research are collected from a validated quarter vehicle model.
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Characterisation of the Effects of Vehicle Parameter Variations on Vehicle Road Load Data

University of Birmingham-Adebola Ogunoiki, Oluremi Olatunbosun
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a statistical characterisation of the effects of variations in vehicle parameters on vehicle road load data using a quarter vehicle as a case study.A model of a quarter vehicle test rig constructed from a commercial SUV is created in a multi-body dynamics (MBD) simulation environment to reproduce the real-life behaviour of the SUV. The model is thereafter validated by correlating the response data collected from both the model and laboratory test rig to the same road input. In order to ensure that only the effects of the variation of the vehicle parameters are captured, a time domain drive signal for a kerb strike road event on the physical vehicle is generated from the proving ground data collected during durability testing of the vehicle. The variants of the quarter vehicle are excited by the generated drive file and the effects of the parameter variations are characterised in terms of peaks, root mean square values and ranges of the sprung and unsprung acceleration as well as the forces in the suspension components.
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On Finite Element Tyre Modal Analysis

Federal Highway Administration-Emmanuel O. Bolarinwa
Univ of Birmingham-Oluremi Olatunbosun
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Three-dimensional (3D) Finite element (FE) tyre models have been widely used for tyre design, vehicle design and dynamic investigations. Such tyre models have the inherent advantage of covering a wide range of tyre modelling issues such as the detailed tyre geometry and material composition, in addition to an extensive coverage of tyre operational conditions such as the static preload, inflation pressure and driving speed. Although tyre vibration behaviour, in different frequency ranges are of general interest, both for the vehicle interior and exterior noise, the present study is limited to a frequency of 100 Hz which is prevalent in most road induced (Noise, Vibration, Harshness) NVH ride and handling problems. This study investigates tyre vibration behaviour using a proprietary FE code. Such investigation plays an important role in the study of vehicle dynamics. In particular, the eigen-pair i.e. the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the tyre in a real eigenvalue analysis for different operational conditions of pressure, pre-load and restraint conditions are extracted and compared with experimental results.
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Investigating Vehicle Behavior on a Sloped Terrain Surface

Bursa Technical University-Erdem Uzunsoy
U.S. Department of Transportation-Emmanuel Bolarinwa
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Sloped medians provide a run-off area for errant vehicles so that they can be safely stopped off-road with or without barriers placed in the sloped median. However, in order to optimize the design of sloped medians and the containment barriers, it is essential to accurately model the behavior of vehicles on such sloped terrain surfaces. In this study, models of a vehicle fleet comprising a small sedan and a pickup truck and sloped terrain surface are developed in CarSim™ to simulate errant vehicle behavior on sloped median. Full-scale crash tests were conducted using the vehicle fleet driven across a 9.754 meters wide median with a 6:1 slope at speeds ranging from 30 to 70 km/h. Measured data such as the lateral accelerations of the vehicle as well as chassis rotations (roll and pitch) were synchronized with the vehicle motion obtained from the video data. The measured responses were compared with responses obtained from simulation in CarSim™ to validate the vehicle and slope terrain models. In addition, snapshots of recorded video footage from the tests were…
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Effect of Damping in Complex Eigenvalue Analysis of Brake Noise to Control Over-Prediction of Instabilities: An Experimental Study

Jaguar Land Rover-Richard Taulbut
University of Birmingham-Mohammad Esgandari, Oluremi Olatunbosun
Published 2013-09-30 by SAE International in United States
Disc brake noise is recognized as a major problem of the automotive industry. Various experimental and numerical techniques have been developed to model the noisy brake and investigate possible solutions. Developing a virtual model of the disc brake which can accurately reproduce the behavior of the brake unit under different conditions is a considerable step forward towards reaching this goal.Among various aspects of the analytical model of a disc brake, application of the correct value of damping based on the material properties and functional frequency range of each component is a significant factor in ensuring correct prediction of the brake system behavior.Complex Eigenvalue Analysis is well established as a tool for predicting brake instabilities which can potentially lead to brake noise. However, it is known to over-predict instabilities i.e. predict instabilities which do not occur in the real brake system. The over-prediction of unstable modes is thought to be as a result of insufficient damping in the model compared with the real brake system. For this reason, the Finite Element Analysis model of the brake…
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Experimental Investigation of Tire Dynamic Strain Characteristics for Developing Strain-Based Intelligent Tire System

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Federal Highway Administration-Emmanuel Bolarinwa
Univ of Birmingham-Xiaoguang Yang, Oluremi Olatunbosun
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0633
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The increasing demand for ground vehicles safety has led to the requirements for effective and accurate vehicle active safety systems, such as Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) and Traction Control System (TCS). As the only link between vehicle and road, the tire is in a very privileged position in a vehicle to acquire vital information which could be used to improve vehicle dynamics control systems. Hence the requirement for an “intelligent tire” that incorporates a system that is able to sense the tire and road conditions, and then interact with the vehicle dynamics control system to optimize the vehicle performance as well as provide warning information to the driver. In this paper, an experimental tire strain-based system is used to establish the proof of concept of an intelligent tire prototype. This experimental system comprises a data acquisition device and three rectangular rosette strain sensors, which can measure the tire surface dynamic strain in real time. Indoor tire rolling tests including steady state straight line and cornering are used to demonstrate the feasibility of the measuring tire…
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Materials Testing for Finite Element Tire Model

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

University of Birmingham-Xiaoguang Yang, Oluremi Olatunbosun, Emmanuel Bolarinwa
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-0418
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
The use of accurate tire material properties is a major requirement for conducting a successful tire analysis using finite element method (FEM). Obtaining these material properties however poses a major challenge for tire modelers and researchers due to the complex nature of tire material and associated proprietary protections of constituent material properties by tire manufactures. In view of this limitation, a simple and effective procedure for generating tire materials data used in tire finite element analysis (FEA) is presented in this paper. All the tire test specimens were extracted from a tire product based on special considerations such as specimen dimension and shape, test standard, precondition of specimen and test condition for cords. The required material properties of tire rubber component, including hyperelasticity and viscoelasticity were obtained using simple uni-axial tension test. The reinforcement elastic modulus was established from Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) in low frequency range. The rubber nonlinear material property was modeled in ABAQUS/CAE. The method used to select an appropriate rubber strain energy model is also presented. In the absence of a…
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