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Evaluation of Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin with a Numerical Thermal Manikin (Part 2): Evaluation of Thermal Environment and Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin

AGC Inc.-Yoshiichi Ozeki, Seiko Suzuki
Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Hajime Oi, Yasushi Ichikawa, Akira Matsumoto
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In the previous paper (Part 1), measurements of equivalent temperature (teq) using a clothed thermal manikin and modeling of the clothed thermal manikin for teq simulation were discussed. In this paper (Part 2), the outline of the proposed mesh-free simulation method is described and comparisons between teq in the calculations and measurements under summer cooling with solar radiation and winter heating without solar radiation conditions in a vehicle cabin are discussed. The key factors for evaluating teq on each body segment of the clothed thermal manikin under cooling and heating conditions are also discussed. In the mesh-free simulation, even if there is a hole or an unnecessary shape on the CAD model, only a group of points whose density is controlled in the simulation area is generated without modifying the CAD model. Therefore, the fluid mesh required by conventional CFD code is not required, and the analysis load is significantly reduced. The most advantageous point is that this mesh-free simulation method satisfies the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy. The cabin thermal environment and…
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Evaluation of Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin with a Numerical Thermal Manikin (Part 1): Measurement of Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin and Development of a Numerical Thermal Manikin

AGC Inc.-Yoshiichi Ozeki, Seiko Suzuki
Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Hajime Oi, Yasushi Ichikawa, Akira Matsumoto, Fusaaki Takeo
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The present paper is Part 1 of two consecutive studies. Part 1 describes three subjects: definition of the equivalent temperature (teq), measurements of teq using a clothed thermal manikin in a vehicle cabin, and modeling of the clothed thermal manikin for teq simulation. After defining teq, a method for measuring teq with a clothed thermal manikin was examined. Two techniques were proposed in this study: the definition of “the total heat transfer coefficient between the skin surface and the environment in a standard environment (hcal)” based on the thermal insulation of clothing (Icl), and a method of measuring Icl in consideration of the area factor (fcl), which indicates the ratio of the clothing surface to the manikin surface area. Then, teq was measured in an actual vehicle cabin by the proposed method under two conditions: a summer cooling condition with solar radiation and a winter heating condition without solar radiation. The results showed that teq, including the effects of the air temperature, air velocity and thermal radiation, was measured properly. Subsequently, a numerical thermal manikin…
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Development of a Heated Seat Based on Human Thermal Sensitivity

Kyushu Univ.-Koji Tabata, Yasuhito Naka, Yutaka Tochihara
Nissan Motor-Kenji Anzai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2010-08-0690
Published 2010-09-29 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Attention was paid to human thermal sensitivity to develop a comfortable heated seat. Effective areas of seat on thermal sensation and thermal comfort were specified by the subjective experiment. The results indicated that heating of buttocks and thigh was effective on thermal sensation. Heating of lower back and thigh was effective on thermal comfort. In addition, it was confirmed to be able to unite quick warm-up performance and comfort performance in steady state by optimizing the heater power density of each area.
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Development of Overall Thermal Sensation Index Based on Local Skin Temperature in Vehicle Cabin

Kyushu Univ.-Yutaka Tochihara
Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Hajime Oi, Hiroki Nagayama
  • Technical Paper
  • 2008-08-0230
Published 2008-05-21 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The purpose of this paper is to develop overall thermal sensation index in the steady-state environment under non-uniform condition. Total 218 subjective experiments were conducted where the conditions of ambient temperature, radiation, wind speed, and seat surface temperature were changed independently. From the result, overall thermal sensation index based on local skin temperature was established. Furthermore, overall thermal sensation was predicted from thermal factors by coupling of a human thermoregulation model with developed index. And good prediction accuracy was obtained in both cooling and heating condition.