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Effects of Fuel Properties Associated with In-Cylinder Behavior on Particulate Number from a Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

Imperial College London-Sebastian Henkel, Yannis Hardalupas, Alexander Taylor
Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Daisuke Tanaka, Ryo Uchida, Toru Noda
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this work was to gain a fundamental understanding of which fuel property parameters are responsible for particulate emission characteristics, associated with key intermediate behavior in the engine cylinder such as the fuel film and insufficient mixing.Accordingly, engine tests were carried out using various fuels having different volatility and chemical compositions under different coolant temperature conditions. In addition, a fundamental spray and film visualization analysis was also conducted using a constant volume vessel, assuming the engine test conditions.As for the physical effects, the test results showed that a low volatility fuel displayed high particulate number (PN) emissions when the injection timing was advanced. The fundamental test clearly showed that the amount of fuel film on the impingement plate increased under such operating conditions with a low volatility fuel.Tests focusing on chemical effects with fuel blends having different aromatic and olefin contents were also conducted. The test results obtained under a completely vaporized condition showed that a test fuel with a high aromatic content displayed higher PN emissions under rich conditions than one with…
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An Investigation on the Ignition Characteristics of Lubricant Component Containing Fuel Droplets Using Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Masaharu Kassai, Taisuke Shiraishi, Toru Noda
Waseda University-Mamoru Hirabe, Yoshiki Wakabayashi, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-2168
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
With the development of downsized spark ignition (SI) engines, low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) has been observed more frequently as an abnormal combustion phenomenon, and there is a critical need to solve this issue. It has been acknowledged that LSPI is not directly triggered by autoignition of the fuel, but by some other material with a short ignition delay time. It was previously reported that LSPI can be caused by droplets of lubricant oil intermixed with the fuel.In this work, the ignition behavior of lubricant component containing fuel droplets was experimentally investigated by using a constant volume chamber (CVC) and a rapid compression and expansion machine (RCEM), which enable visualization of the combustion process in the cylinder. Various combinations of fuel compositions for the ambient fuel-air mixture and fractions of base oil/metallic additives/fuel for droplets were tested.CVC results confirmed the high ignitability of lubricant component containing fuel droplets in pre-heated air, which was responsible for the early timing of LSPI. RCEM results also revealed the high ignitability of lubricant component containing fuel droplets in the premixed fuel/air…
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Research on the Effect of Lubricant Oil and Fuel Properties on LSPI Occurrence in Boosted S. I. Engines

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Masaharu Kassai, Ken Torii, Taisuke Shiraishi, Toru Noda
Shell Global Solutions (Deutschland) GMB-Tor Kit Goh, Karsten Wilbrand
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
The effects of lubricant oil and fuel properties on low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) occurrence in boosted S.I. engines were experimentally evaluated with multi-cylinder engine and de-correlated oil and fuel matrices. Further, the auto-ignitability of fuel spray droplets and evaporated homogeneous fuel/oil mixtures were evaluated in a combustion bomb and pressure differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) tests to analyze the fundamental ignition process.The work investigated the effect of engine conditions, fuel volatility and various lubricant additives on LSPI occurrence. The results support the validity of aspects of the LSPI mechanism hypothesis based on the phenomenon of droplets of lubricant oil/fuel mixture (caused by adhesion of fuel spray on the liner wall) flying into the chamber and autoigniting before spark ignition.Combustion bomb experiments confirmed that lubricant oil sprays have higher auto-ignitability than gasoline fuel components, and no particular effects of lubricant additives on ignitability were observed. However, under the conditions of the PDSC test, it was shown that the oxidative stability of fuel/oil mixtures is lower as the fuel/oil ratio is increased, and higher levels of calcium lubricant…
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A Study of Combustion Technology for a High Compression Ratio Engine: The Influence of Combustion Chamber Wall Temperature on Knocking

SAE International Journal of Engines

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Yoshihiro Imaoka, Kiyotaka Shouji, Takao Inoue, Toru Noda
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0703
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Technologies for improving the fuel economy of gasoline engines have been vigorously developed in recent years for the purpose of reducing CO2 emissions. Increasing the compression ratio is an example of a technology for improving the thermal efficiency of gasoline engines. A significant issue of a high compression ratio engine for improving fuel economy and low-end torque is prevention of knocking under a low engine speed. Knocking is caused by autoignition of the air-fuel mixture in the cylinder and seems to be largely affected by heat transfer from the intake port and combustion chamber walls. In this study, the influence of heat transfer from the walls of each part was analyzed by the following three approaches using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and experiments conducted with a multi-cooling engine system. First, the temperature rise of the air-fuel mixture by heat transfer from each part was analyzed. Heat transfer from the intake port and cylinder head was found to be higher than that from other parts due to the high flow velocity during the intake stroke. Therefore,…
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Mechanism Analysis on LSPI Occurrence in Boosted S. I. Engines

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Masaharu Kassai, Hiroki Hashimoto, Taisuke Shiraishi, Atsushi Teraji, Toru Noda
Published 2015-09-01 by SAE International in United States
Mechanism of suddenly occurring behavior of low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) in boosted spark ignition (SI) engines was analyzed with various experimental methodologies.Endoscope-visualized 1st cycle of LSPI showed droplet-like luminous flame kernels as the origin of flame propagation before spark ignition. With the oil lubricated visualization engine, droplets flying were observed only after enough accumulation of fuel at piston crevice. Also, it was confirmed that subsequent cycles of LSPI occur only after enough operation time.These results indicated that local accumulation of liner adhered fuel and saturation of oil dilution can be a contributing factor to the sudden occurrence of LSPI.
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A Study of a Multistage Injection Mechanism for Improving the Combustion of Direct-Injection Gasoline Engines

SAE International Journal of Engines

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Yoshihiro Imaoka, Kiyotaka Shouji, Takao Inoue, Toru Noda
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0883
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Technologies for improving the fuel economy of gasoline engines have been vigorously developed in recent years for the purpose of reducing CO2 emissions. Increasing the compression ratio for improving thermal efficiency and downsizing the engine based on fuel-efficient operating conditions are good examples of technologies for enhancing gasoline engine fuel economy. A direct-injection system is adopted for most of these engines. Direct injection can prevent knocking by lowering the in-cylinder temperature through fuel evaporation in the cylinder. Therefore, direct injection is highly compatible with downsized engines that frequently operate under severe supercharging conditions for improving fuel economy as well as with high compression ratio engines for which susceptibility to knocking is a disadvantage. On the other hand, direct-injection engines have certain issues such as the need to reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions, and technical measures must be developed for that purpose. Multistage injection is one method of improving direct-injection engines and has both advantages and disadvantages. One benefit of multistage injection is lower PM emissions caused by liquid fuel impinging on the cylinder wall. That…
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Impingement Behavior of Fuel Droplets on Oil Film

Gumma University-Shinya Okamoto, Keiji Ozawa, Tsuneaki Ishima
Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Ryo Uchida, Daisuke Tanaka, Toru Noda
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In a direct injection gasoline engine, the impingement of injected fuel on the oil film, i.e. cylinder liner gives rise to various problems such as abnormal combustion, oil dilution and particulate matter emission. Therefore, in order to solve these problems, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the impingement behavior of the fuel spray onto the oil film. However, there is little information on the impingement behavior of the fuel droplet onto the oil film, whereas many investigations on the impingement behavior of the fuel droplet onto the fuel film are reported.In this study, fundamental investigations were performed for the purpose of clarifying the impingement behavior of the fuel spray onto the oil film. A single fuel droplet mixed with fluorescence dye was dripped on the oil film. To separately measure the fuel and the oil after impingement, simultaneous Mie scattering and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) methods were performed. As a result, it is identified that the impingement behavior of the fuel droplet onto the oil film vary considerably and depend on the Weber…
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Condition of SI-CI Operation With Lean Mixture of Primary Reference Fuel and Hydrogen

Kyoto Univ.-Sopheak Rey, Haruo Morishita, Nobuhiro Aoyama, Masahiro Shioji
Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Toru Noda
  • Technical Paper
  • 2010-08-0218
Published 2010-05-19 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In order to control the heat-release rate at homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) operation, the feasibility of spark-assisted compression ignition (SI-CI) combustion was demonstrated with lean mixture of primary reference fuel (PRF) and hydrogen. In this study, the criteria at octane number and hydrogen ratio were investigated using a rapid compression/expansion machine for different equivalence ratios, compression ratios and spark timings. Experimental results of in-cylinder pressure and heat-release rate may exhibit the advantageous characteristics of SI-CI operation with lower pressure-rise rate and higher engine output. Also, flame images were visualized to observe various combustion forms including HCCI, SI-CI and SI combustions.
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Feasibility of SI-CI Combustion at Lean Mixture of Primary Reference Fuels With Hydrogen Addition

Kyoto Univ.-Masahiro Shioji
Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Haruo Morishita, Sopheak Rey, Toru Noda
  • Technical Paper
  • 2009-08-0391
Published 2009-10-07 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In order to clarify the characteristics of SI-CI combustion with low octane number fuel and hydrogen, experiments were made at different compression ratios and equivalence ratios by using the rapid compression/expansion machine. Histories of in-cylinder pressure and heat-release rate were measured to investigate the combustion processes of the lean mixture of primary reference fuel (PRF) with hydrogen addition. From the experimental results for various octane numbers and hydrogen ratios, the criteria of HCCI combustion, SI-CI combustion and simple SI combustion were exhibited. Also, based on the pressure-rise rate and engine output, the feasibility of SI-CI combustion was demonstrated.
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A Study of SI-CI Hybrid Combustion with Low Octane Number Fuel and Hydrogen

Kyoto Univ.-Toru Noda, Sopheak Rey, Masahiro Shioji
Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Teruyuki Itoh, Shuji Kimura
  • Technical Paper
  • 2008-08-0476
Published 2008-10-22 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
A hybrid combustion of flame propagation and end-gas autoignition by applying hydrogen addition to low octane number fuel has been successfully demonstrated. Stable lean combustion with significantly low NOx emission and less unburned fuel has been observed. The effects of hydrogen ratio and fuel octane number have been investigated with RCEM experiment, as well as the effect of hydrogen addition to ignition delay time has been studied by using detailed chemical kinetic simulation.