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Characterization of GHG Reduction Technologies in the Existing Fleet

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education-Brandon Mikkelsen
US Environmental Protection Agency-Kevin Bolon, Andrew Moskalik, Kevin Newman, Aaron Hula, Anthony Neam
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
By almost any definition, technology has penetrated the U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet significantly in conjunction with the increased stringency of fuel economy and GHG emissions regulations. The physical presence of advanced technology components provides one indication of the efforts taken to reduce emissions, but that alone does not provide a complete measure of the benefits of a particular technology application. Differences in the design of components, the materials used, the presence of other technologies, and the calibration of controls can impact the performance of technologies in any particular implementation. The effectiveness of a technology for reducing emissions will also be influenced by the extent to which the technologies are applied towards changes in vehicle operating characteristics such as improved acceleration, or customer features that may offset mass reduction from the use of lightweight materials.This paper begins with an examination of trends in the penetration of key advanced technologies into the U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet. We then investigate the overall influence of these technologies and vehicle changes on tailpipe CO2 emissions using metrics for powertrain efficiency…
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Representing GHG Reduction Technologies in the Future Fleet with Full Vehicle Simulation

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

US Environmental Protection Agency-Andrew Moskalik, Kevin Bolon, Kevin Newman, Jeff Cherry
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-1273
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
As part of an ongoing assessment of the potential for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of light-duty vehicles, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has implemented an updated methodology for applying the results of full vehicle simulations to the range of vehicles across the entire fleet. The key elements of the updated methodology explored for this article, responsive to stakeholder input on the EPA’s fleet compliance modeling, include (1) greater transparency in the process used to determine technology effectiveness and (2) a more direct incorporation of full vehicle simulation results.This article begins with a summary of the methodology for representing existing technology implementations in the baseline fleet using EPA’s Advanced Light-duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) full vehicle simulation. To characterize future technologies, a full factorial ALPHA simulation of every conventional technology combination to be considered was conducted. The vehicle simulation results were used to automatically generate response surface equations (RSEs), enabling the use of a quick and easily implemented set of specific equations to estimate fleet-wide emissions in place of running time-consuming full vehicle…
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Modeling and Controls Development of 48 V Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-SoDuk Lee, Jeff Cherry, Michael Safoutin, Anthony Neam, Joseph McDonald, Kevin Newman
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis tool (ALPHA) was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulator capable of analyzing various vehicle types combined with different powertrain technologies. The ALPHA desktop application was developed using MATLAB/Simulink. The ALPHA tool was used to evaluate technology effectiveness and off-cycle technologies such as air-conditioning, electrical load reduction technology and road load reduction technologies of conventional, non-hybrid vehicles for the Midterm Evaluation of the 2017-2025 LD GHG rule by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ). This paper presents controls development, modeling results, and model validation for simulations of a vehicle with a 48 V Belt Integrated Starter Generator (BISG) mild hybrid electric vehicle and an initial model design for a 48 V inline on-axis P2-configuration mild hybrid electric vehicle. Both configurations were modeled with a MATLAB/Simulink/Stateflow tool, which has been integrated into EPA’s ALPHA vehicle model and was also used to model components within Gamma Technology GT-DRIVE simulations.…
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Fleet-Level Modeling of Real World Factors Influencing Greenhouse Gas Emission Simulation in ALPHA

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

US Environmental Protection Agency-Paul Dekraker, John Kargul, Andrew Moskalik, Kevin Newman, Mark Doorlag, Daniel Barba
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0899
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-duty vehicles. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types with different powertrain technologies, showing realistic vehicle behavior, and auditing of internal energy flows in the model.In preparation for the midterm evaluation (MTE) of the 2017-2025 light-duty GHG emissions rule, ALPHA has been updated utilizing newly acquired data from model year 2013-2016 engines and vehicles. Simulations conducted with ALPHA provide data on the effectiveness of various GHG reduction technologies, and reveal synergies that exist between technologies. The ALPHA model has been validated against a variety of vehicles with different powertrain configurations and GHG reduction technologies.This paper will present an overview of the laboratory benchmarking that was done to support validation of the ALPHA model. The paper discusses a variety of real world factors that influence the simulation of fuel economy and GHG emissions that are often overlooked. Updates have been made to the ALPHA model to…
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Estimating GHG Reduction from Combinations of Current Best-Available and Future Powertrain and Vehicle Technologies for a Midsized Car Using EPA’s ALPHA Model

US Environmental Protection Agency-John Kargul, Andrew Moskalik, Daniel Barba, Kevin Newman, Paul Dekraker
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
The Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-duty vehicles[1]. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types with different powertrain technologies, showing realistic vehicle behavior, and auditing of all internal energy flows in the model. The software tool is a MATLAB/Simulink based desktop application. In preparation for the midterm evaluation of the light-duty GHG emission standards for model years 2022-2025, EPA is refining and revalidating ALPHA using newly acquired data from model year 2013-2015 engines and vehicles. From its database of engine and vehicle benchmarking data EPA identified the most efficient, engines, transmissions and vehicle technologies, and then used ALPHA to model a midsized car incorporating combinations of these existing technologies which minimize GHG emissions. In a similar analysis, ALPHA was used to estimate the GHG emissions from future low-GHG technology packages potentially available in model year 2025. This paper presents the ALPHA model inputs, results and the lessons learned during this modeling…
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Design and Demonstration of EPA's Integrated Drive Module for Commercial Series Hydraulic Hybrid Trucks and Buses

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

US Environmental Protection Agency-John Kargul, Andrew Moskalik, Kevin Newman, Daniel Barba, Jeffra Rockwell
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2850
Published 2015-09-29 by SAE International in United States
The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Center for Advanced Technology (NCAT), located at its National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory in Ann Arbor, Michigan, has been a global leader in development and demonstration of low-greenhouse gas emitting, highly fuel efficient series hydraulic hybrid drivetrain technologies. Advances in these exciting new technologies have stimulated industry to begin manufacturing hydraulic hybrids for both commercial truck and non-road equipment markets. Development activities are continuing for other markets, including light-duty vehicles. Given the commercial emergence of these low-greenhouse gas emitting series hydraulic hybrids, EPA has passed the leadership for further development to industry.This paper focuses specifically on the design and demonstration of the final series hydraulic hybrid drive for commercial trucks and buses as designed, built and demonstrated by EPA, incorporating many of innovative hydraulic technologies designed and advanced throughout EPA's hydraulic hybrid program. The unique integrated hydraulic drive module and its transmission in a series hydraulic hybrid vehicle (HHV) configuration were installed in a 30-foot class 6 diesel midibus. This HHV was able to achieve 50-180%…
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Benchmarking and Modeling of a Conventional Mid-Size Car Using ALPHA

US Environmental Protection Agency-Kevin Newman, John Kargul, Daniel Barba
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles [1]. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types combined with different powertrain technologies. The software tool is a MATLAB/Simulink based desktop application. The ALPHA model has been updated from the previous version to include more realistic vehicle behavior and now includes internal auditing of all energy flows in the model. As a result of the model refinements and in preparation for the mid-term evaluation of the 2017-2025 LD GHG rule, we are revalidating the model with newly acquired vehicle data.This paper presents the benchmarking, modeling and continued testing of a 2013 Chevy Malibu 1LS. During the initial benchmarking phase, the engine and transmission were removed from the vehicle and tested and evaluated on separate test stands. Data from the benchmarking was provided to the ALPHA model to perform full vehicle simulations over several drive cycles and vehicle road loads. Subsequently, the vehicle was…
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Development and Testing of an Automatic Transmission Shift Schedule Algorithm for Vehicle Simulation

SAE International Journal of Engines

US Environmental Protection Agency-Kevin Newman, John Kargul, Daniel Barba
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-1142
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created by EPA to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-duty (LD) vehicles [1]. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types combined with different powertrain technologies. The software tool is a MATLAB/Simulink based desktop application. In order to model the behavior of current and future vehicles, an algorithm was developed to dynamically generate transmission shift logic from a set of user-defined parameters, a cost function (e.g., engine fuel consumption) and vehicle performance during simulation.This paper presents ALPHA's shift logic algorithm and compares its predicted shift points to actual shift points from a mid-size light-duty vehicle and to the shift points predicted using a static table-based shift logic as calibrated to the same vehicle during benchmark testing. An explanation of, and a process for tuning, the user defined parameters is presented and example applications of the algorithm in transmission and engine sensitivity studies are described.
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